Aleatory archaeology Google Search Parameter 1: 1977 (dd Month yyyy)

Item Number Google Search term Google Search Top Result Unique Result Notes
1 1 January 1977 January 1, 1977 – What Happened – On This Day

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Jan 1, 1977 – What happened on January 1, 1977. Browse historical events, famous birthdays and notable deaths from Jan 1, 1977 or search by date, day or keyword.

2 2 January 1977 2 January 1977, Sunday, What happened on | TakeMeBack.to

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3 3 January 1977 3 January 1977, Monday, What happened on | TakeMeBack.to

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6 6 January 1977 6 January 1977, Thursday, What happened on Epiphany …

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Jan 6, 1977 – Thursday 6 January 1977, Epiphany. It was Thursday, under the sign of Capricorn. The US president was Gerald Ford (Republican).

7 7 January 1977 7 January 1977, Friday, What happened on Orthodox Christmas …

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8 8 January 1977 12 Birthday Facts About January 8, 1977 You Need To Know

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January 8, 1977 clever birthday facts no one tells you about. Get Jan 8 epic list of celebrity and famous birthdays, #1 song, horoscope and FREE gift.

9 9 January 1977 9 January 1977, Sunday, What happened on | TakeMeBack.to

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18 18 January 1977 Granville rail disaster – Wikipedia

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The Granville rail disaster occurred on Tuesday 18 January 1977 at Granville, New South Wales, a western suburb of Sydney when a crowded commuter train derailed, running into the supports of a road bridge that collapsed onto two of the train’s passenger carriages. It remains the worst rail disaster in Australian history  …

Rail line: Main Western line

Deaths: 84

Cause: Maintenance of 4620

Injuries: 213

Granville rail disaster

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Granville Rail And road bridge disaster

Granville-railway-disaster-map.png

Date 18 January 1977

Time 08:10

Location Granville, New South Wales

19.06 km (11.84 mi) WNW from Sydney

Country Australia

Rail line Main Western line

Operator Public Transport Commission

Type of incident Derailment

Cause Maintenance of 4620

Statistics

Trains 1

Deaths 84

Injuries 213

The Granville rail/train disaster occurred on Tuesday 18 January 1977 at Granville, New South Wales, a western suburb of Sydney when a crowded commuter train derailed, running into the supports of a road bridge that collapsed onto two of the train’s passenger carriages. It remains the worst rail disaster in Australian history and the greatest loss of life in a confined area post war: 84[1] people died, more than 213 were injured, and 1,300 were affected.[citation needed]

Contents [hide]

1 Disaster

2 Aftermath

2.1 The Granville Train Disaster Memorial

3 In media

4 Similar rail accidents

5 See also

6 References

7 External links

Disaster[edit source]

The crowded Sydney-bound eight carriage commuter train, having left Mount Victoria in the Blue Mountains at 6:09am,[2] was hauled by a New South Wales 46 class locomotive, No. 4620. It was approaching Granville railway station when it left the rails at approximately 08:10am and hit a row of supports of the overhead Bold Street bridge, which were constructed out of steel and concrete.

The derailed engine and first two carriages passed the bridge. The first carriage broke free from the other carriages. Carriage one was torn open when it collided with a severed mast beside the track, killing eight passengers. The remaining carriages ground to a halt with the second carriage clear of the bridge. The rear half of the third carriage, and forward half of the fourth carriage came to rest under the weakened bridge, whose weight was estimated at 570 tonnes (560 long tons; 630 short tons).[3] Within seconds, with all its supports demolished, the bridge and several motor cars on top of it crashed onto the carriages, crushing them and the passengers inside.[4]

Memorial Plaque commemorating the disaster at Granville station

Of the total number of passengers travelling in the third and fourth carriages, half were killed instantly when the bridge collapsed on them, crushing them in their seats.[3] Several injured passengers were trapped in the train for hours after the accident, with part of the bridge crushing a limb or torso. Some had been conscious and lucid, talking to rescuers, but died of crush syndrome soon after the weight was removed from their bodies. This resulted in changes to rescue procedures for these kinds of accidents.[citation needed] Rescuers also faced greater difficulties as the weight of the bridge was still crushing the affected carriages, reducing the space in which they had to work to get survivors out, until it was declared that no one was allowed to attempt further entry until the bridge had been lifted. Soon after, the bridge settled a further two inches onto the train, trapping two rescuers and crushing a portable generator “like butter”.[5]

Another danger came from gas; LPG cylinders were kept year-round on board the train to be used in winter for heating.[6] Several people were overcome by gas leaking from ruptured cylinders. The leaking gas also prevented the immediate use of powered rescue tools. The NSW Fire Brigade provided ventilation equipment to dispel the gas and a constant film of water was sprayed over the accident site to prevent the possibility of the gas igniting.[3]

The train driver, the assistant crewman, the “second man”, and the motorists driving on the fallen bridge all survived. The operation lasted from 8:12am Tuesday until 6:00am Thursday. Ultimately, 84 people were killed in the accident which included an unborn child.

Aftermath[edit source]

The bridge was rebuilt as a single span without any intermediate support piers. Other bridges similar to the destroyed bridge had their piers reinforced.

The replacement bridge

The original inquiry into the accident found that the primary cause of the crash was “the very unsatisfactory condition of the permanent way”, being the poor fastening of the track, causing the track to spread and allowing the left front wheel of the locomotive to come off the rail. However, some 30 years later research for a book uncovered what was always referred to as a cover-up. Finding evidence that the real cause is believed to be a lack of maintenance to the 46 class loco, having a faulty L6 wheel which was found to be unserviceable in August 1976. As no replacement was available it was decided that it would be allowed to remain in service but would be kept under surveillance. It just so happened on the day of the disaster the L6 wheel was the steering wheel and it is believed that as it approached a crossover point known as Lead 73, it climbed the track putting the loco into its fatal direction. How this happened was related to the lack of spare wheels which had been sold off for scrap to raise funds for the Public Transport Commissions’ budget.

Other contributing factors included the structure of the bridge itself. When built, the base of its deck was found to be one metre lower than the road. Concrete was added on top to build the surface up level with the road.[citation needed] This additional weight significantly added to the destruction of the wooden train carriages. The disaster prompted substantial increases in rail-maintenance expenditure. The train driver, Edward Olencewicz, was exonerated by the inquiry.

For 39 years, the people of the disaster had little to say until the Granville Train Disaster Association Inc. was formed. This was to represent the emotions of those affected (including relatives and friends) via Barry J Gobbe OAM JP and Meredith Knight JP to the Minister for Transport, Andrew Constance and New South Wales Premier, Gladys Berejiklian and requested an apology for the way the real people of the disaster were treated by the then Wran Government of the day. On the 4th of May 2017 Berejiklian gave a formal apology to the victims of the disaster, in New South Wales Parliament House.[7]

The Granville Train Disaster Memorial[edit source]

The Granville Train Disaster Memorial Wall following rectification in 2017 correcting 13 wrongly scribed names thereon. This alteration of the wall was instigated by the chairman (Barry J Gobbe OAM JP) and committee members of the Granville Train Disaster Association with the assistance of the NSW Transport Minister and Sydney Trains.

Shortly after the disaster, a voluntary group who called themselves the ‘Memorial Trust’ who were never registered, collected unknown donation amounts to allegedly erect the memorial wall for ongoing memorial services. Therefore, allowing the annual memorial service to continue for years to come. Families and friends of the victims and survivors gather with surviving members of the rescue crews annually to remember those who did not return home that day. [8] The ceremony ends with the throwing of 84 roses on to the tracks to mark the number of passengers killed.[9] In 2007, a plaque was placed on the bridge to mark the efforts of railway workers who assisted in rescuing survivors from the train.[9]

The original group known as the trust made submissions on rail safety issues, including recommending that fines for safety breaches be dedicated to rail safety improvements,[10] and campaigning for the establishment of an independent railway safety ombudsman.[11] In 2016, the relatives, survivors and the rescuers decided to take over the running of the memorial services and formed the Granville Train Disaster Association Inc. (GTDA). This coincided with changes in local government and legislative changes along with Traffic management legislation and insurance responsibilities. Due to the restructure of Parramatta City Council, Holroyd Council and the Auburn council with amalgamation came a rezoning of areas. This would now mean that the Granville Memorial site would now fall under the control of the newly formed Cumberland Council. As Parramatta City Council who had been the main supporter of the event for some 39 years, financing and supplying staff to assist each year, Cumberland Council decided that the Memorial Services would not be an event under their administration management and advised the GTDA who are a collection of volunteers who were directly involved with the disaster, to apply for a council events grant if they wished the annual services to continue, simply stating that this was not a documented council event, even though over 100 people gather on their council footpath at the memorial wall every year to remember and respect those who perished on that fateful day in 1977 in the now Cumberland Council area. The decision by the Cumberland Council administration was then challenged by the GTDA with the support of the newly formed Cumberland Council elected councillors. On the 6/6/2018 councillors, Hamed & Elmore put forward a motion that ‘council fully support the annual memorial service with the assistance of the GTDA’. It was also amended and noted, to invite assistance from Parramatta City Council and the NSW State Government. The motion was unanimously carried by all councillors present. http://www.granvilletraindisaster.info/

In media[edit source]

A television docudrama, The Day of the Roses, was produced in 1998 about the accident.

A television documentary, The Train, produced by Graham McNeice was aired in 2012 on The History Channel Australia about the accident, and narrated by Brian Henderson.[12]

Similar rail accidents[edit source]

Lewisham rail crash

Eschede train disaster

See also[edit source]

Railway accidents in New South Wales

Lists of rail accidents

References[edit source]

Jump up ^ “Unborn child victim remembered at Granville memorial after 40 years”.

Jump up ^ “Granville Rail/Train Disaster”. Granville History. Retrieved 6 May 2016.

^ Jump up to: a b c “Danger Ahead! Granville, Sydney, Australia (2)”. Retrieved 30 December 2016.

Jump up ^ “Medical Review Seminar Lidcombe Hospital −15 February 1977”. Granville Historical Society. 24 October 2007. Archived from the original on 27 December 2003. Retrieved 20 March 2008.

Jump up ^ “Granville”. Film Australia. 1977. Retrieved 28 October 2017.

Jump up ^ “True story of courage and compassion”. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2016.

Jump up ^ “Granville: Mixed response as NSW Government apologises for Australia’s worst train disaster”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 4 May 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017.

Jump up ^ “Granville victims remembered”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.

^ Jump up to: a b “Granville 41 years on”. WSFM 101.7. 18 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2008.[dead link]

Jump up ^ “Waterfall disaster fine low: opposition”. National Nine News. 16 January 2007. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2008.

Jump up ^ “Rail safety election vow by Brogden”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 January 2003. Retrieved 10 January 2008.

Jump up ^ The way it is: Brian Henderson back for TV doco | The Sydney Morning Herald 12 December 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2016

External links[edit source]

Danger Ahead! Granville, Sydney, Australia

Documentary on the Granville Train Disaster (video)

“Formal Investigation of an Accident on or about the Up Main Western Railway Line at Granville on 18th January 1977 – Summary of findings”. NSW State Records. 11 May 1977.

Granville Train Disaster Historians Web page

Coordinates: 33°49′54″S 151°00′37″E

hidevte

Railway accidents in 1977

Location and date

Sydney, Australia (18 January) Chicago, United States (4 February)

1976 Arrow Blue Left 001.svg Arrow Blue Right 001.svg 1978

Categories: Derailments in AustraliaRailway accidents and incidents in New South Wales1977 in AustraliaRailway accidents in 1977Bridge disasters in AustraliaBridge disasters caused by collisionDisasters in New South WalesJanuary 1977 events1970s in New South Wales20th century in Sydney

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19 19 January 1977 January 19, 1977 – What Happened – On This Day

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Jan 19, 1977 – What happened on January 19, 1977. Browse historical events, famous birthdays and notable deaths from Jan 19, 1977 or search by date, day or keyword.

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Feb 7, 1977 – Monday 7 February 1977. It was Monday, under the sign of Aquarius. The US president was Jimmy Carter (Democratic). Famous people born on this day include Mariusz Pudzianowski and Hillary Wolf.

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Feb 12, 1977 – Saturday 12 February 1977. It was Saturday, under the sign of Aquarius. The US president was Jimmy Carter (Democratic). Famous people born on this day include Liv Sansoz and Melissa Howard.

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The 1977 Vrancea earthquake occurred on 4 March 1977, at 21:22 local time, and was felt throughout the Balkans. It had a magnitude of 7.2, making it the second most powerful earthquake recorded in Romania in the 20th century, after 10 November 1940 seismic event. The epicenter was situated in the Vrancea …

Damage and casualties · Bulgaria · Aftershocks · Reactions of authorities

1977 Vrancea earthquake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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1977 Vrancea earthquake

1977 Vrancea earthquake.jpg

UTC time ??

ISC event

USGS-ANSS

Date * 4 March 1977

Origin time * 19:21:54.3 (UTC)

Local date

Local time

Duration 55 seconds

Magnitude 7.2 Mw

Depth 94 km[1]

Epicenter 45°46′N 26°46′ECoordinates: 45°46′N 26°46′E

Areas affected Romania

Bulgaria

Soviet Union

Moldavian SSR

Ukrainian SSR

Total damage US$ 2.048 billion

Max. intensity IX (violent)

Landslides Yes

Casualties 1,578 dead, 11,221 injured in Romania

120 dead, 165 injured in Bulgaria

2 dead in Moldova

* Deprecated See documentation.

Enei Church, severely damaged during the 1977 earthquake, was later demolished.

The 1977 Vrancea earthquake occurred on 4 March 1977, at 21:22 local time, and was felt throughout the Balkans. It had a magnitude of 7.2, making it the second most powerful earthquake recorded in Romania in the 20th century, after 10 November 1940 seismic event. The epicenter was situated in the Vrancea Mountains, the most seismically active part of Romania, at a depth of 94 km.[2]

The earthquake killed about 1,578 people (1,424 in Bucharest) in Romania, and wounded more than 11,300.[3] Among the victims were actor Toma Caragiu and writers A. E. Bakonsky, Alexandru Ivasiuc and Corneliu M. Popescu. Communist ruler Nicolae Ceaușescu suspended his official visit to Nigeria and declared a state of emergency.

About 32,900 buildings were damaged or destroyed.[4] Immediately after the earthquake, 35,000 families were without shelter. The economic losses are believed to have been as high as two billion US dollars though the sum was not confirmed by the authorities at that time. A detailed report on the destruction the earthquake caused was never published.[2] Most of the damage was concentrated in Romania’s capital, Bucharest, where about 33 large buildings collapsed. Most of those buildings were built before World War II, and were not reinforced. After the earthquake, the Romanian government imposed tougher construction standards.

In Bulgaria, the earthquake is known as the Vrancea earthquake or Svishtov earthquake. Three blocks of flats in the Bulgarian town of Svishtov (near Zimnicea) collapsed, killing more than 100 people. Many other buildings were damaged, including the Church of the Holy Trinity. In the Soviet Moldavia, the earthquake destroyed and damaged many buildings. In the capital Chișinău, a panic broke out.

Contents [hide]

1 Damage and casualties

1.1 Bucharest

1.2 Other Romanian cities

1.3 Bulgaria

1.4 Moldova

1.5 Spatial distribution of human casualties

2 Aftershocks

3 Reactions of authorities

4 Personalities killed in the earthquake

5 See also

6 References

7 External links

Damage and casualties[edit source]

The earthquake of 4 March 1977 was one of the worst earthquake disasters of the 1970s around the world. It caused the loss of 1,578 lives and injured an additional 11,221,[5] with 90% of the fatalities being in the capital city Bucharest. The reported damage included 32,897 collapsed or demolished dwellings, 34,582 homeless families, 763 industrial units affected and many other damage in all sectors of the economy.[5] A 1978 World Bank report estimated a total loss of US$2.048 billion, with Bucharest accounting for 70% of the total, i.e. US$1.4 billion. According to this report, out of Romania’s 40 counties, 23 were strongly affected.[5]

Preliminary estimates of the intensity of shaking in various parts of Romania[6]

Intensity of shaking Location Epicentral distance Focal distance1

V Brașov 91 143

VI Vrâncioaia 2 110

VI–VII Craiova

Galați 288

112 308

157

VII–VIII Alexandria

Buzău

Focșani

Ploiești

Zimnicea 234

80

39

115

268 259

136

117

159

290

VII–IX Bucharest 166 199

1Based on focal depth of 110 km

Bucharest[edit source]

The city centre saw the largest scale destruction and loss of life, since the earthquake particularly affected multi-storey buildings, mostly apartment buildings. Iconic interwar structures along the Bulevardul Balcescu Nicolae – Bulevardul Magheru such as the Scala confectionary building, the Dunărea, and the Casata, and the nearby Continental-Colonadelor and Nestor buildings, completely or largely collapsed, while portions of others gave way.[7] Out of the 33 multi-storeyed buildings that collapsed, 28 were built between 1920 and 1940, a period when earthquake resistant design was unknown. 2 buildings that collapsed were built in the communist era: a building from the Lizeanu housing complex, which was built in 1962 had a small section of it collapsed during the earthquake because a support column was cut at the from the building, leading to that section eventually being demolished and mostly never rebuilt, and a apartment block in Militari named OD16 and built around 1972-1975 fully collapsed due to construction defects (at the time sub-standard concrete had been found used in the said building, and air pockets were formed in the concrete during construction, and even a boot was found in the concrete).[8] Three public buildings, the Ministry of Metallurgy, the Faculty of Chemistry and the Computer Centre also collapsed, but were not heavily occupied due to the time of the earthquake. [9] On 5 March, the first toll of the disaster indicates 508 fatalities and 2,600 injuries.[10] A final toll showed that 90% of the victims were from Bucharest: 1,424 deaths and 7,598 injuries.[11][12]

No critical fires occurred, but electrical power was lost in large areas of the city for about a day. Nine of 35 hospitals were evacuated.

Other Romanian cities[edit source]

In the cities of Focșani and Buzău, unreinforced masonry walls in low-rise construction collapsed partially or totally, and there were signs of movement between structural elements and adjacent masonry in-fill walls in recently constructed engineered buildings.

The city of Zimnicea was reported in ruins: 175 houses collapsed, while 523 sustained serious damage, 4,000 people were displaced, and there were hundreds of victims.[10] Inasmuch as 80% of the city was destroyed, Zimnicea was rebuilt from the ground.[13] In Craiova, more than 550 buildings were severely damaged, among them the Museum of Art, the Oltenia Museum, the University and the County Library. Initial estimates indicate a total of 30 dead and 300 wounded.[10] Vaslui also suffered heavy losses, both human – 7 people dead, and material.[14]

In Ploiești around 200 homes were destroyed, and a further 2,000 were seriously damaged; the situation was also serious in Buzău County, where about 1,900 buildings were affected.[10] In Plopeni, a Worker’s Dormitory made of masonry totally collapsed, killing 30 to 60 workers and injuring many.[9] Counties in Transylvania and Dobruja showed no serious damage.

The earthquake induced geomorphological phenomena in southern, eastern and northern Wallachia, as well as southern Moldavia. These consisted in landslides, liquefaction, settlements, water spurting; in Vrancea Mountains, the course of Zăbala River was partially blocked, forming a small natural dam lake.[15]

Bulgaria[edit source]

The earthquake of 4 March heavily impacted Bulgaria. The city of Svishtov was the most affected. Here, three blocks of flats collapsed, killing up to 120 people, among them 27 children.[16] Many other buildings were damaged, including the Church of the Holy Trinity.[17] In Ruse, the tremors were strong but there was little damage; only one person perished, hit by a huge architectural ornament that fell down from a nearby building.

Moldova[edit source]

According to official data, 2,765 buildings were destroyed in the Moldavian SSR, while 20,763 buildings suffered more or less significant damage.[18][19]

Spatial distribution of human casualties[edit source]

Country Romanian

county Town/Village Killed Injured Hospitalized

(among the

injured)

Romania 1,578 11,321 2,369

Bulgaria Svishtov 120 165 not known

Moldova 2 not known not known

Yugoslavia 0 some 0

Dolj 41 315 to 562 n/a

Teleorman 20 204 67

Prahova 15 (or >50?) not known not known

Vaslui 7 40 not known

Iași 4 270 to 440 not known

Brăila 3 5 not known

Vrancea 2 23 5

Buzău 0 55 not known

Giurgiu 1 35 not known

other county 61? 2,359 to 2,776 797

Bucharest 1,424 7,598 1,500

Plopeni Worker’s Dormitory 30 to 60? many not known

Craiova 30 500 not known

Vălenii de Munte 7? not known

Iași 4 270 to 440 not known

Zimnicea 5 62 not known

Turnu Măgurele 4 70 not known

Roșiorii de Vede 4 not known not known

Alexandria 3 not known not known

Brăila 3 5 not known

Giurgiu 1 35 not known

Focșani 1 not known not known

Odobești 1 not known not known

Năruja 0 1 1

Event total 1,700 ~11,500 ~2,400

Aftershocks[edit source]

The earthquake epicenter was located in the south-west part of Vrancea County, the most active seismic area in Romania, at a depth of about 94 km (58 mi). The shock wave was felt in almost all countries in the Balkan Peninsula, as well as Soviet republics of Ukraine and Moldavia, albeit with a lower intensity. Seismic movement was followed by aftershocks of low magnitude. The strongest aftershock occurred on the morning of 5 March 1977, at 02:00 AM, at a depth of 109 km (68 mi), with a magnitude was 4.9 on the Richter magnitude scale. Other aftershocks’ magnitudes did not exceed 4.3 or 4.5 Mw.[20]

Reactions of authorities[edit source]

At the time of the earthquake, Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu were on an official visit to Nigeria. Ceaușescu heard about the disaster in the country from a Romanian official.

Initially, news about the earthquake was confusing, and people talked about a much larger catastrophe. Due to a power failure in Bucharest, communication services weren’t run for several hours. The population took to the streets, scared of possible aftershocks. At that moment, authorities had not taken any concrete steps.[21]

There were rescue teams from all blocks destroyed. Doctors, soldiers, men of different professions were presented at work. Nine hospitals were decommissioned. Floreasca Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, although seriously damaged, was taken by storm. Subsequently, it was evacuated. The Dinamo Stadium was turned into a triage point for the wounded. By the morning of March 5 work was underway on rehabilitating basic utilities – water, gas, telephony, electricity.[22]

The presidential couple and Romanian delegation in Nigeria returned to Romania during the night of 4–5 March 1977. Afterwards Nicolae Ceaușescu imposed a state of emergency throughout the country. In the following days, the Head of State conducted visits to Bucharest to assess damage.[23]

Teams of military and firefighters responsible for the rescue of possible survivors received aid from the Red Cross. They were joined by the Buftea film studio stuntsmen and many volunteers. Many people were rescued from the ruins, some after several days of being trapped.

Personalities killed in the earthquake[edit source]

Anatol E. Baconsky, essayist, poet, novelist, publicist, literary theorist and translator

Doina Badea, pop music singer

Alexandru Bocăneț, film director

Savin Bratu, editor, critic and literary historian

Toma Caragiu, actor

Daniela Caurea, poet

Florin Ciorăscu, physicist and corresponding member of the Romanian Academy

Tudor Dumitrescu, pianist and composer of classical music

Mihai Gafița, critic, literary historian and writer

Despina Ghinokastra Istrati, painter and illustrator

Alexandru Ivasiuc, writer and novelist

Mihaela Mărăcineanu, mezzo-soprano and soloist of the Romanian Opera in Bucharest

Corina Nicolescu, curator and art historian

Mihail Petroveanu, critic and literary historian

Eliza Petrăchescu, actress

Liviu Popa, architect, illustrator and scenographer

Corneliu M. Popescu, translator

Veronica Porumbacu, poet, writer, memoirist, author of children’s literature and translator

Ioan Siadbei, philologist and literary historian

Tudor Stavru, sportsman and stunt performer

Nicolae Vătămanu, doctor and photographer

Viorica Vizante, translator

See also[edit source]

The Bulgarian film Sweet and Bitter[24] was aired by TVR 1 and has remained linked to the earthquake in the mind of Romanians.[25]

November 10, 1940, Vrancea earthquake, striking Bucharest with a magnitude of 7.4 to 7.7.

List of earthquakes in Romania

List of earthquakes in Bulgaria

References[edit source]

Jump up ^ “Cutremurul din 1977”, Comunismul în România

^ Jump up to: a b Pandea, Razvan-Adrian (4 March 2014). “March 4, 1977 Earthquake”. Agerpres.

Jump up ^ http://www.referat.ro/referate/Cutremurul_din_1977_38471.html

Jump up ^ Wenzel, F.; Lungu, D., eds. (1999). Vrancea Earthquakes: Tectonics, Hazard and Risk Mitigation: Contributions from the First International Workshop on Vrancea Earthquakes, Bucharest, Romania, November 1–4, 1997. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9401059942.

^ Jump up to: a b c Emil-Sever Georgescu; Antonios Pomonis (October 2008). “The Romanian earthquake of March 4, 1977, revisited: new insights into its territorial, economic and social impacts and their bearing on the preparedness for the future” (PDF). Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.

Jump up ^ Earthquake in Romania, March 4, 1977: An Engineering Report. National Academies. 1980. p. 15. NAP:12972.

Jump up ^ “March 4, 1977, on Magheru”. Bucharest Old and New (in Romanian). Retrieved 29 April 2018.

Jump up ^ “Se împlinesc 34 de ani de la marele cutremur din 1977”. ziare.com (in Romanian). 4 March 2011.

^ Jump up to: a b “Vrancea Romania 1977 (CAR)”. GEM Earthquake Consequences Database.

^ Jump up to: a b c d Cornel Ilie. “Cutremurul din 4 martie 1977 – 55 de secunde de coșmar”. historia.ro (in Romanian).

Jump up ^ Neculai Mândrescu; Mircea Radulian; Gheorghe Mărmureanu; Bogdan Grecu (16 October 2006). “Large Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes and seismic microzonation of Bucharest urban area” (PDF). Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering.

Jump up ^ Dan Lungu. “Seismic risk mitigation in the Romania – Synergy from international projects” (PDF). UNISDR.

Jump up ^ “RAPORT DE ȚARĂ. Orașul Zimnicea, reconstruit din temelii după cutremurul din 1977”. Digi24 (in Romanian). 12 June 2013.

Jump up ^ “Cum a scăpat CEAUȘESCU de CUTREMURUL din 1977”. realitatea.net (in Romanian). 3 March 2012.

Jump up ^ “Cutremurul din 4 martie 1977”. cutremur.net (in Romanian). 3 March 2014.

Jump up ^ “Svishtov commemorates memory of 1977 earthquake victims”. Radio Bulgaria. 4 March 2012.

Jump up ^ “Cutremurul din 4 martie 1977 – 37 de ani de la seismul care a făcut peste 1.500 de morți. Înregistrare audio realizată în timpul cutremurului”. Gândul (in Romanian). 4 March 2013.

Jump up ^ Antoseac, G.; Grosulea, I. (1978). Atlasul R.S.S.M. (in Romanian). Academy of Sciences of MSSR.

Jump up ^ Bulletin of the Institute of Geology and Seismology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (in Romanian). 2006.

Jump up ^ http://www.ziare.com/articole/cutremurul+din+1977

Jump up ^ “5 martie 1977, la o zi după cutremur”, Museum of Photography

Jump up ^ “CUTREMURUL DIN 4 MARTIE 1977 (video «În premieră», TVR, plus alte mărturii)”, Război întru Cuvânt

Jump up ^ “4 martie 1977, ziua în care România a fost zguduită”, jurnalul.ro

Jump up ^ IMDb, “Sweet and Bitter”

Jump up ^ 30 de ani de la marea zguduială, Florentina Stoian, Adevărul, 3 March 2007

External links[edit source]

Roxana Roseti, “7,2 grade Richter”, Jurnalul Național, March 4, 2007

The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative data for this event.

hidevte

← Earthquakes in 1977 →

Vrancea (7.2, March 4) †‡ Tonga (8.0, June 22) Sumba (8.3, Aug 19) † San Juan (7.4, Nov 23) †

† indicates earthquake resulting in at least 30 deaths

‡ indicates the deadliest earthquake of the year

hidevte

Earthquakes in Romania

List of earthquakes in Vrancea County

1738 Vrancea (7.7) 1802 Vrancea (7.9)† 1838 Vrancea (7.5) 1901 Black Sea (7.2) 1940 Vrancea (7.7) 1977 Vrancea (7.4)‡ 1986 Vrancea (7.1) 1990 Vrancea (6.9) 2014 Vrancea (5.7)

† largest Vrancea event ever occurred

‡ largest seismic losses ever experienced

Categories: 1977 earthquakes1977 in Romania1977 in Bulgaria1977 in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic1977 in Ukraine1977 in the Soviet UnionEarthquakes in RomaniaEarthquakes in BulgariaEarthquakes in MoldovaEarthquakes in UkraineEarthquakes in the Soviet UnionHistory of BucharestSvishtovSocialist Republic of RomaniaDisasters in BucharestMarch 1977 events in Europe

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On March 27, 1977, two Boeing 747 passenger jets, KLM Flight 4805 and Pan Am Flight 1736, collided on the runway at Los Rodeos Airport (now Tenerife North Airport), on the Spanish island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, killing 583 people, and making it the deadliest accident in aviation history. A terrorist incident at Gran …

Eve Meyer · List of aircraft accidents and … · Jacob Veldhuyzen van Zanten

Tenerife airport disaster

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search

“Tenerife crash” redirects here. For other crashes, see Tenerife North Airport and Tenerife South Airport.

Tenerife airport disaster

KLM Flight 4805 · Pan Am Flight 1736

Het verongelukte KLM-toestel De Rijn, Bestanddeelnr 929-1005 – cropped.jpg

Wreckage on the runway

Accident

Date March 27, 1977

Summary Runway collision caused by communication errors and other factors

Site

Los Rodeos Airport

(now Tenerife-North Airport)

Tenerife, Canary Islands

Coordinates: 28.48165°N 16.3384°W

Total fatalities 583

Total injuries 61

Total survivors 61 (on board Pan Am plane)

First aircraft

KLM 747 (7491686916).jpg

PH-BUF, the KLM Boeing 747-206B

involved in the accident

Type Boeing 747-206B

Name Rijn (“Rhine”)

Operator KLM Royal Dutch Airlines

Registration PH-BUF

Flight origin Schiphol Airport

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Destination Gran Canaria Airport

Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

Passengers 234

Crew 14

Fatalities 248

Survivors 0

Second aircraft

Boeing 747-121, Pan American World Airways – Pan Am AN1399875.jpg

A Pan Am Boeing 747-121,

similar to the aircraft involved in the accident

Type Boeing 747-121

Name Clipper Victor

Operator Pan American World Airways

Registration N736PA

Flight origin Los Angeles International Airport

Los Angeles, United States

Stopover John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York City, U.S.

Destination Gran Canaria Airport

Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

Passengers 380

Crew 16

Fatalities 335

(326 passengers, 9 crew)

Injuries 61

Survivors 61

On March 27, 1977, two Boeing 747 passenger jets, KLM Flight 4805 and Pan Am Flight 1736, collided on the runway at Los Rodeos Airport (now Tenerife North Airport), on the Spanish island of Tenerife, Canary Islands,[1][2] killing 583 people, making it the deadliest accident in aviation history.

A terrorist incident at Gran Canaria Airport had caused many flights to be diverted to Los Rodeos, including the two aircraft involved in the accident. The airport quickly became congested with parked airplanes blocking the only taxiway and forcing departing aircraft to taxi on the runway instead. Patches of thick fog were drifting across the airfield, so that the aircraft and control tower were unable to see one another.[1][2]

The collision occurred when KLM 4805 initiated its takeoff run while Pan Am 1736, shrouded in fog, was still on the runway and about to turn off onto the taxiway. The impact and resulting fire killed everyone on board the KLM plane and most of the occupants of the Pan Am plane, with only 61 survivors in the front section of the aircraft.[1][2]

The subsequent investigation by Spanish authorities concluded that the primary cause of the accident was the KLM captain’s decision to take off in the mistaken belief that a takeoff clearance from air traffic control (ATC) had been issued.[3] Dutch investigators placed a greater emphasis on mutual misunderstanding in radio communications between the KLM crew and ATC,[4] but ultimately KLM admitted that their crew was responsible for the accident and the airline agreed to financially compensate the relatives of all of the victims.[5]

The disaster had a lasting influence on the industry, highlighting in particular the vital importance of using standardized phraseology in radio communications. Cockpit procedures were also reviewed, contributing to the establishment of crew resource management as a fundamental part of airline pilots’ training.[6]

Contents [hide]

1 Flight history

1.1 KLM Flight 4805

1.2 Pan Am Flight 1736

2 Disaster

2.1 Diversion of aircraft to Los Rodeos

2.2 Taxiing and takeoff preparations

2.3 Weather conditions at Los Rodeos

2.4 Communication misunderstandings

2.5 Collision

2.6 Airport closure

3 Investigation

3.1 Probable cause

3.2 Dutch response

3.3 Speculations

4 Safety response

5 Memorials

6 Notable victims

7 Documentaries

8 Similar accidents and incidents

9 See also

10 References

11 External links

Flight history[edit source]

Tenerife was an unscheduled stop for both flights. Their destination was Gran Canaria International Airport (also known as Las Palmas Airport or Gando Airport), serving Las Palmas on the nearby island of Gran Canaria. Both islands are part of the Canary Islands, an autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean off the southwest coast of Morocco.

KLM Flight 4805[edit source]

KLM captain Veldhuyzen van Zanten featured in a 1977 advertisement for the airline.

KLM Flight 4805 was a charter flight for Holland International Travel Group and had arrived from Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Netherlands.[7] Its cockpit crew consisted of captain Jacob Veldhuyzen van Zanten, age 50,[8] first officer Klaas Meurs, age 42, and flight engineer Willem Schreuder, age 48. At the time of the accident, van Zanten was KLM’s chief flight instructor, with 11,700 flight hours, of which 1,545 hours were on the 747. Meurs had 9,200 flight hours, of which 95 hours were on the 747. Schreuder had 15,210 flight hours, of which 540 hours were on the 747.

The aircraft was a Boeing 747-206B, registration PH-BUF, named Rijn (Rhine). The KLM jet was carrying 14 crew members and 235 passengers, including 52 children. Most of the KLM passengers were Dutch, while also on board were 4 Germans, 2 Austrians and 2 Americans. After the aircraft landed at Tenerife, the passengers were transported to the airport terminal. One of the inbound passengers, who lived on the island with her partner, chose not to re-board the 747, leaving 234 passengers on board.[9][10]

Pan Am Flight 1736[edit source]

Pan Am Flight 1736 had originated at Los Angeles International Airport, with an intermediate stop at New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK). The aircraft was a Boeing 747-121, registration N736PA, named Clipper Victor. Of the 380 passengers (mostly of retirement age, but including two children), 14 had boarded in New York, where the crew was also changed. The new crew consisted of captain Victor Grubbs, age 56, first officer Robert Bragg, age 39, flight engineer George Warns, age 46, and 13 flight attendants. At the time of the accident, Grubbs had 21,043 hours of flight time, of which 564 hours were on the 747. Bragg had 10,800 flight hours, of which 2,796 hours were on the 747. Warns had 15,210 flight hours, of which 559 hours were on the 747.

This particular aircraft had operated the inaugural 747 commercial flight on January 22, 1970.[7] On August 2, 1970, in its first year of service, it also became the first 747 to be hijacked, en route from JFK to José Martí Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico.[11]

Disaster[edit source]

Diversion of aircraft to Los Rodeos[edit source]

Rijn (foreground) and Clipper Victor (center) at Los Rodeos on the day of the accident

Both flights had been routine until they approached the islands. At 13:15, a bomb (planted by the separatist Fuerzas Armadas Guanches) exploded in the terminal of Gran Canaria International Airport, injuring one person.[12] There had been a phone call warning of the bomb, and soon after another call claimed that a second bomb was at the airport. The civil aviation authorities had therefore closed the airport temporarily after the bomb detonated and diverted all of its incoming flights to Los Rodeos, including the two Boeing 747 aircraft involved in the disaster.[3] The Pan Am crew indicated that they would prefer to circle in a holding pattern until landing clearance was given, but were ordered to divert to Los Rodeos.[13]

All traffic from Gran Canaria, including five large airliners, had been diverted to Los Rodeos,[14] a regional airport that could not easily accommodate them. The airport had only one runway and one major taxiway parallel to it, with four short taxiways connecting the two. While waiting for Gran Canaria airport to reopen, the diverted aircraft took up so much space that they were parked on the long taxiway, meaning that it could not be used for taxiing. Instead, departing aircraft had to taxi along the runway to position themselves for takeoff, a procedure known as a backtaxi or backtrack.[3]

After the threat at Gran Canaria had been contained, authorities reopened that airport. The Pan Am aircraft was ready to depart from Tenerife, but the KLM plane and a refueling vehicle obstructed its access to the runway. The Pan Am aircraft was unable to maneuver around the fueling KLM, reach the runway and depart due to a lack of safe clearance, which was a mere twelve feet (3.7 m).[9] Captain Veldhuyzen van Zanten had decided to fully refuel at Los Rodeos instead of Las Palmas, apparently to save time. The refueling took about 35 minutes. After that, the passengers were brought back to the plane. The search for a missing Dutch family of four delayed the flight even further. A tour guide chose not to reboard for Las Palmas, because she lived on Tenerife and did not think it practical to fly to Gran Canaria just to return to Tenerife the next day. She would be the only person who flew from Amsterdam to Tenerife on Flight 4805 to survive, as she was not on the plane at the time of the accident.

Taxiing and takeoff preparations[edit source]

The tower instructed the KLM to taxi down the entire length of the runway and then make a 180-degree turn to get into takeoff position.[15] While the KLM was backtaxiing on the runway, the controller asked the flight crew to report when it was ready to copy the ATC clearance. Because the flight crew was performing the checklist, copying this clearance was postponed until the aircraft was in takeoff position on Runway 30.[16]

Simplified map of runway, taxiways, and aircraft. The red star indicates the location of impact. Not to scale.

Shortly afterward, the Pan Am was instructed to follow the KLM down the same runway, exit it by taking the third exit on their left and then use the parallel taxiway. Initially, the crew was unclear as to whether the controller had told them to take the first or third exit. The crew asked for clarification and the controller responded emphatically by replying: “The third one, sir; one, two, three; third, third one.” The crew began the taxi and proceeded to identify the unmarked taxiways using an airport diagram as they reached them.[17]

The crew successfully identified the first two taxiways (C-1 and C-2), but their discussion in the cockpit never indicated that they had sighted the third taxiway (C-3), which they had been instructed to use.[18] There were no markings or signs to identify the runway exits and they were in conditions of poor visibility. The Pan Am crew appeared to remain unsure of their position on the runway until the collision, which occurred near the intersection with the fourth taxiway (C-4).[19]

The angle of the third taxiway would have required the plane to perform a 148-degree turn, which would lead back toward the still-crowded main apron. At the end of C-3, the Pan Am would have to make another 148-degree turn, in order to continue taxiing towards the start of the runway, similar to an inverted letter “Z”. Taxiway C-4 would have required two 35-degree-turns. A study carried out by the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) after the accident concluded that making the second 148-degree turn at the end of taxiway C-3 would have been “a practical impossibility.”[20] Subsequent performance calculations and taxi tests with a Boeing 747 turning off on an intersection comparable to the C-3 at Tenerife, as part of the Dutch investigation, indicate that in all probability the turns could have been made. The official report from the Spanish authorities explains that the controller instructed the Pan Am aircraft to use the third taxiway because this was the earliest exit that they could take to reach the unobstructed section of the parallel taxiway.[21]

Weather conditions at Los Rodeos[edit source]

Los Rodeos airport is at 633 metres (2,077 feet) above sea level, which gives rise to cloud behavior that differs from that at many other airports. Clouds at 600 m (2,000 ft) above ground level at the nearby coast are at ground level at Los Rodeos. Drifting clouds of different densities cause wildly varying visibilities, from unhindered at one moment to below the minimums the next. The collision took place in a high-density cloud.[22]

The Pan Am crew found themselves in poor and rapidly deteriorating visibility almost as soon as they entered the runway. According to the ALPA report, as the Pan Am aircraft taxied to the runway, the visibility was about 500 m (1,600 ft). Shortly after they turned onto the runway it decreased to less than 100 m (330 ft).[23]

Meanwhile, the KLM plane was still in good visibility, but with clouds blowing down the runway towards them. The aircraft completed its 180-degree turn in relatively clear weather and lined up on Runway 30. The next cloud was 900 m (3,000 ft) down the runway and moving towards the aircraft at about 12 knots (14 mph; 22 km/h).[24]

Communication misunderstandings[edit source]

hideCockpit and ATC tower communications

These communications are taken from the cockpit voice recorders of both aircraft, as well as from the Tenerife control tower’s tapes.[12][25][26][27][28][29]

1705:36–1706:32

1705:36.7

[KLM first officer completes pre-flight checklist. KLM 4805 is now at the end of the runway, in position for departure.]

1705:41.5

KLM FIRST OFFICER Wait a minute, we don’t have an ATC clearance. [This statement is apparently a response to an advancing of the throttles in the KLM]

KLM CAPTAIN No, I know that, go ahead, ask.

1705:44.6–1705:50.8

KLM (RADIO) The KLM four eight zero five is now ready for take-off and we are waiting for our ATC clearance.

1705:53.4–1706:08.1

TENERIFE TOWER KLM eight seven zero five [sic] you are cleared to the Papa beacon, climb to and maintain flight level nine zero, right turn after take-off, proceed with heading four zero until intercepting the three two five radial from Las Palmas VOR.

1706:07.4

KLM CAPTAIN Yes.

1706:09.6–1706:17.8

KLM (RADIO) Ah roger, sir, we are cleared to the Papa beacon flight level nine zero, right turn out zero four zero until intercepting the three two five. We are now at take-off [or “uh..taking off”].

1706:11.1

[KLM brakes released]

1706:12.3

KLM CAPTAIN We gaan … check thrust. [We’re going … check thrust].

1706:14.0

[Engine acceleration audible in KLM cockpit]

1706:18.2–1706:21.2

TENERIFE TOWER OK…. Stand by for take-off, I will call you. [Only the start of this message could be heard clearly by the KLM crew due to a radio heterodyne]

1706:19.3

PAN AM CAPTAIN No… uh.

1706:20.3

PAN AM (RADIO) And we’re still taxiing down the runway, the clipper one seven three six. [This message was not heard completely clear by the KLM crew due to a radio heterodyne]

1706:25.5

TENERIFE TOWER Ah, Papa Alpha one seven three six, report the runway clear.

1706:29.6

PAN AM (RADIO) OK, will report when we’re clear.

1706:31.7

TENERIFE TOWER Thank you. [This the last radio communication involving the two aircraft. Everything which follows is intra-cockpit communication amongst its respective crews.]

1706:32–1706:40

1706:32.1

PAN AM CAPTAIN Let’s get the hell out of here.

1706:34.9

PAN AM FIRST OFFICER Yeah, he’s anxious, isn’t he?

1706:36.2

PAN AM FLT ENGR Yeah, after he held us up for half an hour, that [expletive]. Now he’s in a rush.

1706:32.4

KLM FLT ENGR Is hij er niet af dan? [Is he not clear then?]

1706:34.1

KLM CAPTAIN Wat zeg je? [What do you say?]

1706:34.2

KLM UNKNOWN Yup.

1706:34.7

KLM FLT ENGR Is hij er niet af, die Pan American? [Is he not clear, that Pan American?]

1706:35.7

KLM CAPTAIN Jawel. [Oh yes. – emphatic]

1706:40–1706:50

1706:40.5

[Pan Am captain sees the KLM’s landing lights at approx. 700 m]

1706:40.6

PAN AM CAPTAIN There he is … look at him. Goddamn that son-of-a-bitch is coming!

1706:45.9

PAN AM FIRST OFFICER Get off! Get off! Get off!

1706:43.5

KLM FIRST OFFICER V-1.

1706:44.0

[PH-BUF (KLM 4805) starts rotation]

1706:47.4

KLM CAPTAIN Oh shit!

1706:50

N736PA (Pan Am 1736) records sound of collision.

Immediately after lining up, the KLM captain advanced the throttles and the aircraft started to move forward.[30] First officer Meurs advised him that ATC clearance had not yet been given, and captain Veldhuyzen van Zanten responded: “No, I know that. Go ahead, ask.” Meurs then radioed the tower that they were “ready for takeoff” and “waiting for our ATC clearance”. The KLM crew then received instructions that specified the route that the aircraft was to follow after takeoff. The instructions used the word “takeoff,” but did not include an explicit statement that they were cleared for takeoff.

Meurs read the flight clearance back to the controller, completing the readback with the statement: “We are now at takeoff.”[3] Captain Veldhuyzen van Zanten interrupted the co-pilot’s read-back with the comment, “We’re going.”[3]

The controller, who could not see the runway due to the fog, initially responded with “OK” (terminology that is nonstandard), which reinforced the KLM captain’s misinterpretation that they had takeoff clearance. The controller’s response of “OK” to the co-pilot’s nonstandard statement that they were “now at takeoff” was likely due to his misinterpretation that they were in takeoff position and ready to begin the roll when takeoff clearance was received, but not in the process of taking off. The controller then immediately added “stand by for takeoff, I will call you”,[3] indicating that he had not intended the clearance to be interpreted as a takeoff clearance.[31]

A simultaneous radio call from the Pan Am crew caused mutual interference on the radio frequency, which was audible in the KLM cockpit as a 3-second-long shrill sound, (or heterodyne). This caused the KLM crew to miss the crucial latter portion of the tower’s response. The Pan Am crew’s transmission was “We’re still taxiing down the runway, the Clipper 1736!” This message was also blocked by the interference and inaudible to the KLM crew. Either message, if heard in the KLM cockpit, would have alerted the crew to the situation and given them time to abort the takeoff attempt.[32]

Due to the fog, neither crew was able to see the other plane on the runway ahead of them. In addition, neither of the aircraft could be seen from the control tower, and the airport was not equipped with ground radar.[3]

After the KLM plane had started its takeoff roll, the tower instructed the Pan Am crew to “report when runway clear.” The Pan Am crew replied: “OK, will report when we’re clear.” On hearing this, the KLM flight engineer expressed his concern about the Pan Am not being clear of the runway by asking the pilots in his own cockpit, “Is he not clear, that Pan American?” Veldhuyzen van Zanten emphatically replied “Oh, yes” and continued with the takeoff.[33]

Collision[edit source]

Animation of the collision, with the taxiing Pan Am plane (left) attempting to turn away from the KLM plane (right) on its takeoff run.

According to the cockpit voice recorder (CVR), the Pan Am captain said “There he is!”, when he spotted the KLM’s landing lights through the fog just as his plane approached exit C-4. When it became clear that the KLM aircraft was approaching at takeoff speed, captain Grubbs exclaimed “Goddamn, that son-of-a-bitch is coming!”, while first officer Robert Bragg yelled “Get off! Get off! Get off!”. Captain Grubbs applied full power to the throttles and made a sharp left turn towards the grass in an attempt to avoid the pending collision.[3] By the time the KLM pilots saw the Pan Am aircraft, they were already traveling too fast to stop. In desperation, the pilots prematurely rotated the aircraft and attempted to clear the Pan Am by lifting off, causing a severe tailstrike for 22 m (72 ft).

The KLM 747 was within 100 m (330 ft) of the Pan Am and travelling at approximately 140 knots (260 km/h; 160 mph) when it left the ground. Its nose landing gear cleared the Pan Am, but its left-side engines, lower fuselage, and main landing gear struck the upper right side of the Pan Am’s fuselage,[9] ripping apart the center of the Pan Am jet almost directly above the wing. The right-side engines crashed through the Pan Am’s upper deck immediately behind the cockpit.

The KLM plane remained briefly airborne, following the collision, but the impact had sheared off the outer left engine, caused significant amounts of shredded materials to be ingested by the inner left engine, and damaged the wings. It immediately went into a stall, rolled sharply, and hit the ground approximately 150 m (500 ft) past the collision, sliding down the runway for a further 300 m (1,000 ft). The full load of fuel, which had caused the earlier delay, ignited immediately into a fireball that could not be subdued for several hours.

One of the 61 survivors of the Pan Am flight, John Coombs of Haleiwa, Hawaii, said that sitting in the nose of the plane probably saved his life: “We all settled back, and the next thing an explosion took place and the whole port side, left side of the plane, was just torn wide open.”[34]

Both airplanes were destroyed in the collision. All 248 passengers and crew aboard the KLM plane died, as did 335 passengers and crew aboard the Pan Am plane,[35] primarily due to the fire and explosions resulting from the fuel spilled and ignited in the impact. The other 61 passengers and crew aboard the Pan Am aircraft survived, including the captain, first officer and flight engineer. Most of the survivors on the Pan Am walked out onto the intact left wing, the side away from the collision, through holes in the fuselage structure. The Pan Am’s engines were still running for a few minutes after the accident despite first officer Bragg’s intention to turn them off. The top part of the cockpit, where the engine switches were located, had been destroyed in the collision, and all control lines were severed, leaving no method for the flight crew to control the aircraft’s systems. Survivors waited for rescue, but it did not come promptly, as the firefighters were initially unaware that there were two aircraft involved and were concentrating on the KLM wreck hundreds of meters away in the thick fog and smoke. Eventually, most of the survivors on the wings dropped to the ground below.[9]

Captain Veldhuyzen van Zanten was KLM’s chief of flight training and one of their most senior pilots. He had given the co-pilot on Flight 4805 his Boeing 747 qualification check about two months before the accident.[10] His photograph was used for publicity materials such as magazine advertisements, including the inflight magazine on board PH-BUF.[9][36] Before realising that Veldhuyzen van Zanten was the KLM captain who had been killed in the accident, KLM suggested that he should help with the investigation.[37]

Airport closure[edit source]

Los Rodeos airport, the only operating airport on Tenerife in 1977, was closed to all fixed-wing traffic for two days. The first crash investigators to arrive at Tenerife the day after the crash travelled there by way of a three-hour boat ride from Las Palmas.[38] The first aircraft that was able to land was a United States Air Force C-130 transport, which landed on the airport’s main taxiway at 12:50 on March 29. It transported all surviving and injured passengers from Tenerife to Las Palmas; many of the injured would be taken from there to Air Force bases in the United States for further treatment.[39][40]

Spanish Army soldiers were tasked with clearing crash wreckage from the runways and taxiways.[41] By March 30, a small plane shuttle service was approved, but large jets still could not land.[41] Los Rodeos was fully reopened on April 3, after wreckage had been fully removed and engineers had repaired the airport’s runway.[42]

Investigation[edit source]

The accident was investigated by Spain’s Comisión de Investigación de Accidentes e Incidentes de Aviación Civil (CIAIAC).[3] About 70 personnel were involved in the investigation, including representatives from the Netherlands, the United States, and the two airline companies.[43] Facts showed that there had been misinterpretations and false assumptions. Analysis of the CVR transcript showed that the KLM pilot was convinced that he had been cleared for takeoff, while the Tenerife control tower was certain that the KLM 747 was stationary at the end of the runway and awaiting takeoff clearance. It appears KLM’s co-pilot was not as certain about take-off clearance as the captain.

Probable cause[edit source]

The investigation concluded that the fundamental cause of the accident was that captain Veldhuyzen van Zanten attempted to take off without clearance. The investigators suggested the reason for this was a desire to leave as soon as possible in order to comply with KLM’s duty-time regulations and before the weather deteriorated further.

Other major factors contributing to the accident were:

The sudden fog greatly limited visibility. The control tower and the crews of both planes were unable to see one another.

Interference from simultaneous radio transmissions, with the result that it was difficult to hear the message.

The following factors were considered contributing but not critical:

Use of ambiguous non-standard phrases by the KLM co-pilot (“We’re at take off”) and the Tenerife control tower (“OK”).

The Pan Am aircraft had not left the runway at the third intersection.

The airport was forced to accommodate a great number of large aircraft due to rerouting from the terrorist incident, resulting in disruption of the normal use of taxiways.[44]

Dutch response[edit source]

The Dutch authorities were reluctant to accept the Spanish report blaming the KLM captain for the accident.[45] The Netherlands Department of Civil Aviation published a response that, while accepting that the KLM aircraft had taken off “prematurely”, argued that he alone should not be blamed for the “mutual misunderstanding” that occurred between the controller and the KLM crew, and that limitations of using radio as a means of communication should have been given greater consideration.

In particular, the Dutch response pointed out that:

The crowded airport had placed additional pressure on all parties, including the KLM cockpit crew, the Pan Am cockpit crew, and the controller;

Sounds on the CVR suggested that during the accident the Spanish control tower crew had been listening to a football match on the radio and may have been distracted.[46]

The transmission from the tower in which the controller passed KLM their ATC clearance was ambiguous and could have been interpreted as also giving take-off clearance. In support of this part of their response, the Dutch investigators pointed out that Pan Am’s messages “No! Eh?” and “We are still taxiing down the runway, the Clipper 1736!” indicated that captain Grubbs and first officer Bragg had recognized the ambiguity (this message was not audible to the control tower or KLM crew due to simultaneous cross-communication);

The Pan Am had taxied beyond the third exit. Had the plane turned at the third exit as instructed, the collision would not have occurred.[4][47]

Although the Dutch authorities were initially reluctant to blame captain Veldhuyzen van Zanten and his crew,[4][47] the airline ultimately accepted responsibility for the accident. KLM paid the victims or their families compensation ranging between $58,000 and $600,000.[5] The sum of settlements for property and damages was $110 million[48] (an average of $189,000 per victim due to limitations imposed by European Compensation Conventions in effect at the time).

Speculations[edit source]

This was one of the first accident investigations during which the contribution of “human factors” was studied.[49] The human factors included:

Captain Veldhuyzen van Zanten, a KLM training captain and instructor for over 10 years, had not flown on regular routes during the 12 weeks prior to the accident.[50]

The flight engineer’s and the first officer’s apparent hesitation to challenge Veldhuyzen van Zanten further. The official investigation suggested that this might have been because the captain was not only senior in rank, but also one of the most respected pilots working for the airline.[9][51] This view is questioned by Jan Bartelski, a former KLM captain and the president of the International Federation of Air Line Pilots’ Associations (IFALPA), who knew both men and believes that this explanation is inconsistent with his experience of their personalities.[52]

The reason only the flight engineer on the KLM plane reacted to the radio transmission “OK, will report when we’re clear” might lie in the fact that by then he had completed his pre-flight checks, whereas his colleagues were experiencing an increased workload, just as the visibility worsened.[53]

The ALPA study group concluded that the KLM crew did not realize that the transmission “Papa Alpha one seven three six, report when runway clear” was directed at the Pan Am because this was the first and only time the Pan Am was referred to by that name. Before that, the Pan Am was called “Clipper one seven three six”, with the proper callsign.[54]

The extra fuel taken on by the KLM plane added several factors:

It delayed takeoff by an extra 35 minutes, which gave time for the fog to settle in;

It added over forty tons of weight to the plane,[55] which increased the takeoff distance and made it more difficult to clear the Pan Am plane when taking off;

It increased the size of the fire from the crash that ultimately killed everyone on board.[56][57]

Safety response[edit source]

As a consequence of the accident, sweeping changes were made to international airline regulations and to aircraft. Aviation authorities around the world introduced requirements for standard phrases and a greater emphasis on English as a common working language.[13]

Air traffic instruction should not be acknowledged solely with a colloquial phrase such as “OK” or even “Roger” (which simply means the last transmission was received[58]), but with a readback of the key parts of the instruction, to show mutual understanding. The phrase “take off” is now spoken only when the actual takeoff clearance is given or when cancelling that same clearance (i.e. “cleared for take-off” or “cancel take-off clearance”). Up until that point, aircrew and controllers should use the phrase “departure” in its place, e.g. “ready for departure”. Additionally, an ATC clearance given to an aircraft already lined-up on the runway must be prefixed with the instruction “hold position”.[59]

Cockpit procedures were also changed. Hierarchical relations among crew members were played down. More emphasis was placed on team decision-making by mutual agreement. Less experienced flight crew members were encouraged to challenge their captains when they believed something was not correct, and captains were instructed to listen to their crew and evaluate all decisions in light of crew concerns. This concept was later expanded into what is known today as crew resource management (CRM), training which is now mandatory for all airline pilots.[60][61]

In 1978, a second airport on the island was opened: the new Tenerife–South Airport (TFS). This airport now serves the majority of international tourist flights. Los Rodeos, renamed to Tenerife North Airport (TFN), was then used only for domestic and inter-island flights. In 2002, a new terminal was opened and Tenerife North once again carries international traffic, including budget airlines.

The Spanish government installed a ground radar at Tenerife North following the accident.[13][62]

Memorials[edit source]

Tenerife disaster memorials

Memorial on Tenerife

Westgaarde Cemetery

Westminster Memorial Park

A Dutch national memorial and final resting place for the victims of the KLM plane is located in Amsterdam, at Westgaarde cemetery. There is also a memorial at the Westminster Memorial Park and Mortuary in Westminster, California.

In 1977, a cross in Rancho Bernardo was dedicated to nineteen area residents who died during the disaster.[63][64]

In 2007, the 30th anniversary marked the first time that Dutch and American next-of-kin and aid helpers from Tenerife joined an international commemoration service, held at the Auditorio de Tenerife in Santa Cruz. The International Tenerife Memorial March 27, 1977, was inaugurated at the Mesa Mota on March 27, 2007. The monument was designed by Dutch sculptor Rudi van de Wint.[65]

Notable victims[edit source]

Eve Meyer, a pin-up model, film actress and producer and former wife of film director Russ Meyer, was on the Pan Am, and was killed.[66]

A. P. Hamann, the former city manager of San Jose, California, and his wife Frances Hamann, were also on the Pan Am, and were both killed.[67]

Documentaries[edit source]

The disaster has been featured in many TV shows and documentaries. These include the Survival in the Sky episode “Blaming the Pilot”, the Seconds From Disaster episode “Collision on the Runway”, PBS’s NOVA episode “The Deadliest Plane Crash” in 2006, the PBS special Surviving Disaster: How the Brain Works Under Extreme Duress (based on Amanda Ripley’s book The Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes – and Why) in 2011, Destroyed in Seconds and two episodes of the Canadian TV series Mayday (known by different names in different countries), namely the season 16 standard length episode “Disaster at Tenerife” and the earlier more in-depth 90 minute feature-length special episode “Crash of the Century”.

Similar accidents and incidents[edit source]

Similar incidents involving two large airliners in collision or near misses when one aircraft was taking off whilst another was occupying the runway include:

On January 29, 1971, Flight 592 a Boeing 727 operated by Trans Australia Airlines collided with a Canadian Pacific Airlines Douglas DC8-63 aircraft at Kingsford-Smith Airport, Sydney, Australia, due to errors by the crew of the DC-8. Both aircraft were substantially damaged; The Boeing 727 sustained damage to the underside of its fuselage. It made a successful emergency landing back at Kingsford-Smith Airport. The DC-8 lost most of its tailfin and rudder. The starboard elevator was also damaged. There were no injuries amongst the nineteen crew and 240 passengers on board the two aircraft.[68]

On October 11, 2016, China Eastern Airlines Flight 5643, an Airbus A320, was forced to rotate early whilst taking off from Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport due to China Eastern Airlines Flight 5106, an Airbus A330, crossing the runway ahead of it. The crew of the latter had been cleared to cross by Air Traffic Control, shortly after the A320 had been cleared for takeoff. The crossing clearance was revoked later. There was no collision, the A320 clearing the A330 by 19 metres (62 ft). There were 26 crew and 413 passengers aboard the two aircraft. The pilot of the A320 was rewarded by the Civil Aviation Administration of China for averting the accident.[69]

See also[edit source]

List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft

References[edit source]

^ Jump up to: a b c “580 killed in history’s worst air disaster”. Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. March 28, 1977. p. 1A.

^ Jump up to: a b c “Dutch pilot blamed for air disaster”. Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. March 29, 1977. p. 1A.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i “ASN Accident Description”. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved May 11, 2011.

^ Jump up to: a b c “Dutch comments on the Spanish report” (PDF). Project-Tenerife.

^ Jump up to: a b “How KLM accepted their responsibility for the accident”. Project-Tenerife.

Jump up ^ Baron, Robert. “The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology”. Global Operators Flight Information Resource. Retrieved May 11, 2011.

^ Jump up to: a b Kilroy, Chris Special Report: Tenerife Archived October 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. AirDisaster.com.

Jump up ^ “Official report” (PDF). (5.98 MB), section 5.2, p. 38 (PDF p. 41 of 63)”

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Macarthur Job (1995). Air Disaster Volume 1, ISBN 1-875671-11-0, pp.164–180

^ Jump up to: a b “The Deadliest Plane Crash”. PBS. October 17, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2014.

Jump up ^ “A Day of “Firsts””. Pan Am Historical Foundation.

^ Jump up to: a b “The Tenerife crash – March 27th, 1977”. www.1001crash.com. Retrieved June 28, 2016.

^ Jump up to: a b c “The Tenerife Airport Disaster – the worst in aviation history”. tenerife information centre. March 27, 1977. Retrieved April 11, 2017.

Jump up ^ Ebert, John David (2012). The Age of Catastrophe: Disaster and Humanity in Modern Times. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-7142-3. Five large planes had been diverted to Las Rodeos, …

Jump up ^ “Official report” (PDF). (5.98 MB), p. 2 (PDF p. 5 of 63)

Jump up ^ “Official report” (PDF). (5.98 MB), pp. 3–4 (PDF pp. 6–7 of 63)

Jump up ^ “Official report” (PDF). (5.98 MB), p. 3 (PDF p. 6 of 63)

Jump up ^ “Official report” (PDF). (5.98 MB), pp. 56–57 (PDF pp. 59–60 of 63)

Jump up ^ “Official report, annex 6” (PDF).

Jump up ^ “ALPA report on the crash” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2011. (2.70 MB), p. 19 (PDF p. 23 of 97)

Jump up ^ “Official report” (PDF). (5.98 MB), p. 46 (PDF p. 49 of 63)

Jump up ^ “ALPA report on the crash” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2011. (2.70 MB), p. 8 (PDF p. 12 of 97)

Jump up ^ “ALPA report on the crash” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2011. (2.70 MB), p. 11 (PDF p. 15 of 97)

Jump up ^ “ALPA report on the crash” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2011. (2.70 MB), p. 12 (PDF p. 16 of 97)

Jump up ^ “Project-Tenerife.com” (PDF). Retrieved May 5, 2012.

Jump up ^ “airdisaster.com“. airdisaster.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.

Jump up ^ Shari Stanford Krause (2003). Aircraft Safety: Accident Investigations, Analyses, & Applications, Second Edition. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-07-143393-8.

Jump up ^ “NOVA/PBS.org: The final eight minutes”. pbs.org. March 27, 1977. Retrieved May 5, 2012.

Jump up ^ JAR Professional Pilot Studies by Phil Croucher. books.google.com. Retrieved May 3, 2013.

Jump up ^ Official report, p.48

Jump up ^ Bruggink, Gerard M. “Remembering Tenerife” Archived May 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved February 24, 2014.

Jump up ^ “Air travel’s communications killer”. salon.com. March 28, 2002. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013.

Jump up ^ “Plane Crash Info, March 1977, page 18”. planecrashinfo.com. March 27, 1977. Retrieved May 5, 2012.

Jump up ^ “Tenerife Disaster, 1977 Year in Review”. upi.com. April 30, 2012. Archived from the original on April 20, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.

Jump up ^ Fatal Events Since 1970 for KLM AirSafe.com.

Jump up ^ Advertisement showing Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Project-Tenerife.

Jump up ^ Jan Reijnoudt en Niek Sterk: Tragedie op Tenerife: de grootste luchtramp, optelsom van kleine missers, 2002. ISBN 9043505633

Jump up ^ “Experts converge on Canaries to probe plane crash (March 29, 1977)”. Retrieved June 28, 2016.

Jump up ^ “Air crash victims flown home”. Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). UPI. March 30, 1977. p. 1A.

Jump up ^ “Desert Sun 29 March 1977 — California Digital Newspaper Collection”. cdnc.ucr.edu. Retrieved June 28, 2016.

^ Jump up to: a b “30 Mar 1977, Page 4 – The Naples Daily News”. newspapers.com. Retrieved June 19, 2016.

Jump up ^ “Newspaper Full Page – New Nation, 4 April 1977, Page 5”. eresources.nlb.gov.sg. Retrieved June 28, 2016.

Jump up ^ Job, p.164

Jump up ^ “Official report” (PDF). (5.98 MB), pp. 61–62

Jump up ^ Curran, William J. (November 3, 1977). “The Medicolegal Lessons of the Tenerife Disaster”. New England Journal of Medicine. 297 (18): 986–987. doi:10.1056/NEJM197711032971806. ISSN 0028-4793.

Jump up ^ “Final report and comments of the Netherlands Aviation Safety Board” (PDF). Project-Tenerife. pp. 60–61 (PDF pp. 40–41).

^ Jump up to: a b Nicholas Faith (1996, 1998). Black Box: pp.176–178

Jump up ^ The Washington Post, March 25, 1980

Jump up ^ “ALPA report on the crash” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2011. (2.70 MB), p. 2 (PDF p. 6 of 97). “The study group notes with approval that the official report of the spanish government has, itself, included a section on human factors involved in this accident. We feel that this is an excellent beginning toward a better understanding of the causal factors of aviation accidents, an idea whose time has finally come.”

Jump up ^ Weick, Karl E. (July 1, 2016). “The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenerife Air Disaster”. Journal of Management. 16 (3): 571–593. doi:10.1177/014920639001600304.

Jump up ^ “Official report” (PDF). (5.98 MB), section 5.2, p. 38 (PDF p. 41 of 63): “… these circumstances could have induced the co-pilot not to ask any questions, assuming that his captain was always right”

Jump up ^ Bartelski, Jan (2001). Disasters in the air: mysterious air disasters explained. Airlife. ISBN 978-1-84037-204-5.

Jump up ^ “ALPA report on the crash” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2011. (2.70 MB), p. 22 (PDF p. 26 of 97). “Both pilots were contending with heavy demands on their attention as the visibility rapidly worsened. The flight engineer, to the contrary, had completed the heaviest part of his workload and was now reverting to an instrument monitoring mode.”

Jump up ^ “ALPA report on the crash” (PDF). project-Tenerife.com. Archived from the original (pdf) on June 14, 2011. (2.70 MB), p. 22 (PDF p. 26 of 97). “It is our opinion that the flight engineer, like the pilots, did not perceive the message from the controller to the Pan Am asking them to report when runway clear. (Because of the use of the address “Papa Alpha).”

Jump up ^ This Spanish report says 55,500 liters of jet fuel. Based on a density of 0.8705 kg/l that weighs 45 metric tons, or 49 US tons Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.

Jump up ^ The Deadliest Plane Crash – transcript, NOVA, The 55 tons of fuel the Dutch plane had taken on creates a massive fireball that seals the fate of everyone onboard

Jump up ^ The full load of new fuel ignited immediately, Crossroads Today Archived July 31, 2013, at archive.is

Jump up ^ CAP 413 Radio Telephony Manual (Edition 15), chapter 2 page 6

Jump up ^ CAP 413 Radio Telephony Manual (Edition 15), chapter 4, page 6, paragraph 1.7.10

Jump up ^ “TENERIFE DISASTER – 27 MARCH 1977: The Utility of the Swiss Cheese Model & other Accident Causation Frameworks”. Go Flight Medicine. Retrieved October 13, 2014.

Jump up ^ Helmreich, R. L.; Merritt, A. C.; Wilhelm, J. A. (1999). “The Evolution of Crew Resource Management Training in Commercial Aviation” (PDF). Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 9 (1): 19–32. doi:10.1207/s15327108ijap0901_2. PMID 11541445. Archived from the original (pdf) on March 6, 2013.

Jump up ^ “Tenerife North airport will get a new control tower, more than 30 years after world’s biggest air disaster”. www.tenerife-training.net. Retrieved March 4, 2017.

Jump up ^ kacejataste (January 29, 2009). “Around the Ranch: All about Battle Mountain”. The San Diego Union-Tribune. Pomerado News. Retrieved May 5, 2018.

Jump up ^ Himchak, Elizabeth Marie (June 9, 2016). “Rancho Bernardo cross undergoes repairs”. The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved May 5, 2018.

Jump up ^ “COMUNICADO: Monumento International Tenerife Memorial donado al Cabildo; avanzan los trabajos de cimentación en la Mesa Mota”. El Economista (in Spanish). February 19, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2012.

Jump up ^ “Passenger list of the PanAm”. ProjectTenerife.com. Retrieved February 10, 2016.

Jump up ^ “San Jose Inside – Dutch Hamann – Part 2”. sanjoseinside.com. January 23, 2006. Retrieved May 5, 2012.

Jump up ^ “Special Investigation Report 71-1” (PDF). Air Saftety Investigation Branch. August 1971. Retrieved October 30, 2016.

Jump up ^ Hradecky, Simon (October 11, 2016). “Incident: China Eastern A333 at Shanghai on Oct 11th 2016, runway incursion forces departure to rotate early and climb over A333”. Aviation Herald. Retrieved October 30, 2016.

External links[edit source]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tenerife airport disaster.

External images

PH-BUF (KLM 4805) – airliners.net

N736PA (Pan Am 1736) – airliners.net

Official Spanish and Dutch accident reports

“A-102/1977 y A-103/1977 Accidente Ocurrido el 27 de Marzo de 1977 a las Aeronaves Boeing 747, Matrícula PH-BUF de K.L.M. y Aeronave Boeing 747, matrícula N736PA de PANAM en el Aeropuerto de los Rodeos, Tenerife (Islas Canarias).” – Hosted by the Civil Aviation Accident and Incident Investigation Commission (in Spanish)

Human Factors Report on the Tenerife Accident – Air Line Pilots Association of the United States (Archive)

Project Tenerife — website about the Tenerife disaster

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← 1976 Aviation accidents and incidents in 1977 1978 →

Jan 5  Connellan air disaster

Jan 13  Aeroflot Flight 3843

Jan 13  JAL Cargo Flight 8054

Jan 15  Linjeflyg Flight 618

Feb 15  Aeroflot Flight 5003

Mar 17  British Airtours Boeing 707 crash

Mar 27  Tenerife airport disaster

Apr 4  Southern Airways Flight 242

Apr 12  Delta Air Lines Flight 1080

Apr 27  Aviateca Convair 240 crash

May 10  Israeli CH-53 crash

May 14  Dan-Air Boeing 707 crash

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Jul 10  Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-134 hijacking

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Dec 2  Benghazi Libyan Arab Airlines Tu-154 crash

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Categories: Accidents and incidents involving the Boeing 747Airliner accidents and incidents involving ground collisionsAirliner accidents and incidents caused by pilot errorAirliner accidents and incidents involving fogAviation accidents and incidents in 1977Aviation accidents and incidents in SpainKLM accidents and incidentsPan American World Airways accidents and incidentsTenerife1977 in the Netherlands1977 in SpainMarch 1977 events

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121 1 May 1977 Taksim Square massacre – Wikipedia

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The Taksim Square massacre (Turkish: Kanlı 1 Mayıs) relates to the incidents on 1 May 1977, the international Labour Day on Taksim Square in Istanbul, Turkey. The event came within the scope of the wave of political violence in Turkey of the late 1970s.

Background · The event · Legal measures · Assailants: Counter …

Taksim Square massacre

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This article’s lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. (April 2018)

This article is about the 1977 incident. For the “Bloody Sunday” incident which occurred at Taksim Square in 1969, see Bloody Sunday (1969).

The Taksim Square massacre (Turkish: Kanlı 1 Mayıs) relates to the incidents on 1 May 1977, the international Labour Day on Taksim Square in Istanbul, Turkey. The event came within the scope of the wave of political violence in Turkey of the late 1970s.

Contents [hide]

1 Background

2 The event

2.1 Casualties

2.2 Legal measures

2.3 Assailants: Counter-Guerrilla

3 See also

4 Notes

5 References

Background[edit source]

In the Ottoman Empire, the first celebration of Labour Day was organized in Skopje in 1909. In Istanbul, Labour Day was first celebrated in 1912. No celebrations could be organized between 1928 and 1975.[1] On 1 May 1976 the Confederation of Revolutionary Trade Unions of Turkey (DISK) organized a first rally on Taksim Square with mass participation.[2]

Rumours that Labour Day 1977 would turn out bloody were circulated by the Turkish press before the rally, once again organized by DISK.[2] The leadership of DISK known to support Workers Party of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye İşçi Partisi, TİP), the Socialist Workers’ Party of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Sosyalist İşçi Partisi, TSİP) and the then-illegal Communist Party of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Komünist Partisi, TKP) had banned the participation of the Maoist bloc (at the time acting under names such as the Liberation of the People, the Path of the People and Union of the People). It was expected that these groups would clash with each other.[2]

The event[edit source]

The estimates on the number of participants in the Labour Day celebrations on Taksim Square in 1977 is usually given as 500,000 citizens.[3] Many participants and in particular the Maoist bloc had not even entered the square when shots were heard. Most witnesses stated that they came from the building of the water supply company (Sular İdaresi) and Intercontinental Hotel (now the Marmara Hotel), the tallest building in Istanbul in 1977. Subsequently the security forces intervened with armoured vehicles making much noise with their sirens and explosives. They also hosed the crowd with pressurized water. People tried to escape through Kazancı Yokuşu, the nearest exit from the square, however a track blocked escape route. Most casualties were caused by the panic that police intervention created.[1]

Casualties[edit source]

The figures on the casualties vary between 34 and 42 persons killed and 126 and 220 persons being injured. An official indictment against 98 participants of the celebrations presented 34 names of killed persons.[4][notes 1] The Confederation of Revolutionary Trade Unions (DISK) prepared a list with 36 names.[notes 2] In another publication the name of Mehmet Ali Kol was also mentioned. Fahrettin Erdoğan, the press advisor for DISK concluded that these names taken together would raise the death toll to 42.[5]

On the day of the incident, Istanbul Radio Station announced that 34 people had been killed and 126 persons had been injured. According to the autopsy reports only four victims had been killed by bullets. In three cases the cause of death could either be a bullet or injuries to the head and 27 victims had been crushed. Several witnesses stated that Meral Özkol had been overrun by an armoured vehicle.[6]

Legal measures[edit source]

None of the perpetrators were caught and brought to justice. After the incident, over 500 demonstrators were detained, and 98 were indicted. Among the 17 defendants, who had been put in pre-trial detention, three were released before the first hearing and nine were released at the first hearing on 7 July 1977. The remaining prisoners were released soon afterwards. The trial ended in acquittal on 20 October 1989.[7] Various sources stated that from the roof of the Water Supply Company, some 20 snipers were detained by the gendarmerie and handed over to the police. However, none of them appeared in the records of the police. This information comes from the prosecutor investigating the Taksim Square Massacre, Çetin Yetkin. He said that Lieutenant Abdullah Erim made the detentions and handed the detainees over to the police officers Muhsin Bodur and Mete Altan (who after the military intervention of 12 September 1980 worked in the political department of Istanbul Police HQ). Both officers rejected the claim that they had been involved.[8]

After three months of investigation, the prosecutor Çetin Yetkin was appointed elsewhere and resigned. Çetin Yetkin claimed that a sack with explosives had been handed over to the police, but later disappeared.[8] Similarly the lawyer Rasim Öz alleged that he had shot a film of the incident showing many things including the snipers on the roof of the Water Supply Company. He had handed it over to the prosecutor’s office, but it had been “lost” at Istanbul Police HQ.[7]

Hope of legal recourse finally fizzled out due to the statute of limitations; a deliberate tack by the culprits, according to Öz.[9]

Assailants: Counter-Guerrilla[edit source]

Ever since the Taksim Square Massacre, the fact that none of the perpetrators were caught and brought to justice has fueled allegations that the Turkish branch of Operation Gladio, the Counter-Guerrilla, was involved. One of the first persons to raise such allegations was the then leader of the opposition Bülent Ecevit.[10] At a meeting in Izmir, he said on 7 May: “Some organizations and forces within the State, but outside the control of the democratic State of law, have to be taken under control without losing time. The counter-guerrilla is running an offensive and has a finger in the 1 May incident.”[11] Later he declined to comment on the incident, just like the then Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel. But in a confidential letter Demirel sent to Ecevit, he warned his rival that he might become the victim of the same circles, if he would speak at Taksim Square on 3 June 1977. The letter that was disclosed by Ecevit warned that shots might be fired from Sheraton (now the InterContinental) Hotel. The forces to conduct such an attack in order to spoil the stability of Turkey Demirel were suspected to be “illegal communist or terrorist organizations” or “foreign enterprises or international terrorist organizations” that had been encouraged by the incidents on Taksim Square on 1 May 1977.[12]

Since the beginning, the CIA has been suspected of involvement. After the incident, Ali Kocaman, chair of the trade union Oleyis, stated that police officers and Americans had been in the Intercontinental Hotel that had been closed to the public for that day.[7] Bülent Uluer, the then Secretary General of the Revolutionary Youth Federation (Turkish: Devrimci Gençlik) said on 2 May 1977: “Most victims were among us. About 15 of our friends died. This was a plan of the CIA, but not the beginning nor the end. To solve these incidents, one has to look at it from the angle.”[1]

Former Turkish prime minister Bülent Ecevit recalled he had learned of the existence of Counter-Guerrilla, the Turkish “stay-behind” armies for the first time in 1974.[13] At the time, the commander of the Turkish army, General Semih Sancar, had allegedly informed him the US had financed the unit since the immediate post-war years, as well as the National Intelligence Organization (Turkish: Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı, MIT). Ecevit declared he suspected Counter-Guerrilla’s involvement in the 1977 Taksim Square massacre in Istanbul, The next year, the demonstrators were met with bullets. According to Ecevit, the shooting lasted for twenty minutes, yet several thousand policemen on the scene did not intervene. This mode of operation recalls the June 20, 1973 Ezeiza massacre in Buenos Aires, when the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (aka Triple A), founded by José López Rega (a P2 member), opened up fire on the left-wing Peronists.

According to an article in the leftist pro-Kurdish Kurtuluş magazine,[14] MIT deputy chief Hiram Abas was present on the May Day massacre. (Swiss historian Daniele Ganser says that Abas was a CIA agent;[15] the CIA’s station chief in Istanbul, Duane Clarridge, spoke glowingly of him.[16]) The Hotel International, from which the shots were fired, belonged to ITT Corporation, which had already been involved in financing the September 11, 1973 coup against Salvador Allende in Chile and was on good terms with the CIA. Hiram Abas had been trained in the US in covert action operations and as an MIT agent first gained notoriety in Beirut, where he co-operated with the Mossad from 1968 to 1971 and carried out attacks, “targeting left-wing youths in the Palestinian camps and receiving bounty for the results he achieved in actions”.[14]

See also[edit source]

List of massacres in Turkey

2013 Taksim Gezi Park protests in Turkey

Notes[edit source]

Jump up ^ These include: Meral Özkol, Mültezim Oltulu (Mürtezim Örtülü), Ahmet Gözükara, Ziya Baki, Bayram Eği (Eyi), Diran Nigiz (Negis), Ramazan Sarı, Hacer İpek (Saman), Hamdi Toka, Nazan Ünaldı, Jale Yeşilnil, Bayram Çatak (Çıtak), Rasim Elmaz (Elmas), Mahmut Atilla Özbelen (Özveren), Leyla Altıparmak, Ercüment Gürkut, Kenan Çatak, Mustafa Elmas, Hatice Altun, Kahraman Alsancak, Kadriye Duman, Aleksandros Konteas (Kontuas), Hüseyin Kırgın, Mehmet Ali Genç, Ali Sıdal, Ömer Narman, Sibel Açıkalın, Garabet Ayhan, Hikmet Özkürkçü, Nazmi Arı, Kadir Balcı (Bağcı) and Niyazi Darı

Jump up ^ This list included the names of Ali Yeşilgül, Mustafa Ertan, Yücel Elbistanlı, Tevfik Beysoy, Bayram Sürücü, Özcan Gürkan ve Hülya Emecan

References[edit source]

^ Jump up to: a b c Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-05-01). “30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (3)”. Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2008-07-01.

^ Jump up to: a b c Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-04-30). “30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (2)”. Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-07-01.

Jump up ^ “Police Crashes May Day Rally”. bianet. 2007-05-01. Retrieved 2008-07-01.

Jump up ^ Özcan, Emine (2006-04-28). “1977 1 Mayıs Katliamı Aydınlatılsın”. bianet (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2011-08-07. Retrieved 2008-07-07.

Jump up ^ Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-05-02). “30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (4)”. Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-07-01.

Jump up ^ Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-04-29). “30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (1)”. Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-07-01.

^ Jump up to: a b c Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-05-05). “30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (7)”. Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2007-05-15. Retrieved 2008-07-01.

^ Jump up to: a b Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-05-07). “30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (9)”. Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-07-01.

Jump up ^ Ikinci, Sinan (2003-05-01). “Turkey’s bloody 1977 May Day still clouded in mystery”. World Socialist Web Site. International Committee of the Fourth International. Retrieved 2008-12-16.

Jump up ^ Lucy Komisar, Turkey’s terrorists: a CIA legacy lives on, The Progressive, April 1997.

Jump up ^ Mavioglu, Ertugrul; Sanyer, Ruhi (2007-05-06). “30 yıl sonra kanlı 1 Mayıs (8)”. Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-07-01.

Jump up ^ İpek ÇALIŞLAR, Güldal KIZILDEMİR (1986-05-04). “1 Mayıs 1977/Kanlı Bayram”. Bianet (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2008-07-01. Originally published in Nokta’, 4 May 1986 as “1 Mayıs 1977/Kanlı Bayram”, .

Jump up ^ Ganser, Daniele (2005). NATO’s Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe. London: Routledge. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-7146-8500-7. Retrieved 2008-07-02.

^ Jump up to: a b Halk Icin Kurtulus, № 99, 19 September 1998 (in Turkish)[unreliable source?] – quoted in (Ganser 2005, p. 297) See footnote 30.

Jump up ^ Ganser, Daniele (2005). NATO’s Secret Armies: Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe. Frank Cass Publishers. pp. 232–3. ISBN 0-7146-8500-3.

Jump up ^ Clarridge, Duane R (1997). An Agent for All Seasons. Simon & Schuster. p. 398. ISBN 0-7432-4536-9. We had become good friends, almost like brothers, after our retirements…Hiram was unique. In his time, he was the Turkey’s finest intelligence officer. This view of Hiram was shared by all foreign intelligence officers who had the privilege of knowing him.

Categories: Protests in TurkeyMassacres in TurkeyTerrorist incidents in Istanbul1977 in TurkeyMass murder in 1977History of IstanbulHuman rights in Turkey20th century in IstanbulMay 1977 eventsMassacres committed by TurkeyTerrorist attacks attributed to Turkish militant groupsOperation Gladio

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122 2 May 1977 2 May 1977, Monday, What happened on | TakeMeBack.to

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152 1 June 1977 List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1977

Issue date

Song

Artist(s)

January 1

“Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)”

Rod Stewart

January 8

“You Don’t Have to Be a Star (To Be in My Show)”

Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis, Jr.

January 15

“You Make Me Feel Like Dancing”

Leo Sayer

January 22

“I Wish”

Stevie Wonder

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List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1977 – Wikipedia

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177 26 June 1977 Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In. Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In. Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In. Jerry Scheff and Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977.

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Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

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Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

Ticket for Elvis in Concert June 26, 1977, his last concert

Ticket for Elvis in Concert June 26, 1977, his last concert.

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Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

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Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

Elvis Presley June 26, 1977 – 8.30pm Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

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Jerry Scheff and Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977.

Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

Elvis Presley : June 26, 1977 : Market Square Arena, Indianapolis, In.

01. Also sprach zarathustra

02. See see rider

03. I got a woman / Amen

04. Love me

05. Fairytale

06. You gave me a mountain

07. Jailhouse rock

08. O sole mio (sung by Sherrill Nielsen) / It´s now or never

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13. Bridge over troubled water

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15. Early morning rain

16. What´d I say

17. Johnny B Goode

18. Introductions continued

19. I really don´t want to know

20. Introductions concluded

21. Hurt

22. Hound dog

23. Special thanks by Elvis

24. Can´t help falling in love with you

25. Closing vamp

‘We’ll meet you again, God bless, adios’ ……… Elvis Presley

February 1977

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This is an excellent release no fan should be without it.

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June 28, 1977 clever birthday facts no one tells you about. Get Jun 28 epic list of celebrity and famous birthdays, #1 song, horoscope and FREE gift.

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182 1 July 1977 List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1977

Issue date

Song

Artist(s)

June 18

“Dreams”

Fleetwood Mac

June 25

“Got to Give It Up (Part 1)”

Marvin Gaye

July 2

“Gonna Fly Now (Theme From Rocky)”

Bill Conti

July 9

“Undercover Angel”

Alan O’Day

49 more rows

List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1977 – Wikipedia

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Operation Fair Play was the code name for the 5 July 1977 coup by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The coup itself was bloodless, and was preceded by social unrest and political conflict between the ruling leftist Pakistan …

Executed by: 111th Brigade, X Corps

Planned by: General Headquarters (GHQ)

Date: 4 July 1977

Location: Prime Minister Secretariat, Islamabad

Operation Fair Play

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Operation Fair Play

Part of the Cold war

State emblem of Pakistan.svg

Type Strategic and Tactical

Location Prime Minister Secretariat, Islamabad

Planned by General Headquarters (GHQ)

Objective Relief of Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from the Prime Minister Secretariat

Date 4 July 1977

Executed by 111th Brigade, X Corps

Outcome

Success of coup d’etat led by General Zia-ul-Haq

Execution of elected prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.

11 years of Military dictatorship government was formed.

Closer ties with United States

Growth of Religious fundamentalism

Muhammad-Zia-ul-Haq-01.jpg This article is part of

a series about

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq

Early life Military coup Zia administration

Political views

Hudood Ordinances Islamic conservatism Economic policy

Elections

1985

President of Pakistan

Referendum in 1984 Eighth Amendment Ojhri Cantt disaster

Death

State funeral Shafi–ur–Rehman Commission A Case of Exploding Mangoes

State emblem of Pakistan.svg

Gallery: Picture, Sound, Video

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Operation Fair Play was the code name for the 5 July 1977 coup by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.[1] The coup itself was bloodless, and was preceded by social unrest and political conflict between the ruling leftist Pakistan Peoples Party government of Bhutto, and the right-wing Islamist opposition Pakistan National Alliance which accused Bhutto of rigging the 1977 general elections. In announcing the coup, Zia promised “free and fair elections” within 90 days, but these were repeatedly postponed on the excuse of accountability and it was not until 1985 that (“party-less”) general elections were held. Zia himself stayed in power for eleven years until his death in a plane crash.

The coup was a watershed event in the Cold War and in the history of the country. The coup took place nearly six years after the 1971 war with India which ended with the secession of East Pakistan as Bangladesh. The period following the coup saw the “Islamisation of Pakistan” and Pakistan’s involvement with the Afghan mujahideen (funded by US and Saudi Arabia) in the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan.

Contents [hide]

1 Background

1.1 1977 general elections and political crises

2 Coup

2.1 Supreme Court

2.2 Soviet Union and United States

3 Aftermath

4 References

Background[edit source]

The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) came in power after the general elections held in 1970. The power was given to PPP after the devastating war with India which ended with the secession of East-Pakistan.[2] Proponents of social democracy, left-wing philosophy, and socialist orientation was encouraged by the government and such ideas slowly entered in the ordinary lives of the people.[2]

According to some authors and historians some influential groups were not ready to accept the PPP’s taking power in 1971.[2] In 1972–74, the intelligence community had thwarted more than one attempt by the military officers to oust the civilian PPP government; all cases were heard by JAG legal branch of the Pakistan military. In 1976, Prime Minister Bhutto forcefully retired seven army generals to promote Lieutenant-General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to four star rank and subsequently appointment as chief of army staff and General Muhammad Shariff as chairman joint chiefs. Reciprocating in the same period, General Zia invited Bhutto of becoming first and only civilian Colonel Commandant of the Armoured Corps.

1977 general elections and political crises[edit source]

In 1976, nine religious and conservative parties formed a common platform, called Pakistan National Alliance (PNA).[2] In January 1977, Prime Minister Bhutto immediately started campaigning after called for new general elections.[2] The PNA was united behind religious slogans and a right-wing political agenda.[2] The PPP, on the other hand, campaigned on a platform of social justice in agriculture and industry. Despite large turnouts at PNA campaign events and the establishment on PNA’s circle, the results of the general elections showed the Pakistan Peoples Party winning 155 out of 200 seats in the National Assembly and the PNA winning only 36. The results “astonished political pundits both inside and outside Pakistan”.[2] Bhutto securing supermajority in the Parliament.[2]

The PNA leadership was astonished when the results were announced by the Election Commission (EC) and prudently refused to accept the results and accused the Government of systematic rigging.[2] According to “The Story of Pakistan”,

At many places, particularly where the PNA candidates were strong, the polling was alleged to have been blocked for hours. There were also reports that PPP armed personnel in police uniform removed ballot boxes. Marked ballot papers were also found on the streets in Karachi and Lahore. Rumors quickly circulated that the results in key constituencies were issued directly from the Prime Minister’s office.[3]

According to author Ian Talbot, “The reality seems to be that a certain PPP victory was inflated by malpractice committed by local officials, which may have affected 30–40 seats.”[4]

The PNA immediately called for street boycott and demanded resignation of Prime Minister Bhutto.[2] The violence spread all over the country when PPP refused PNA’s demands; a massive violent demonstration, civil disobedience, and confrontation with the Police ensued. The PNA used mosques to stimulate the masses and tried to create an impression that they were only working for the enforcement of Islamic theocracy.[2] At least 200 people were killed in the clashes between security forces and demonstrators.[5]

Zia had already taken care of the Bhutto Loyalists, and had put to military trial one of the biggest names in Pakistan Army history ; General Tajammul Hussain Malik war hero 1965 & 1971 to show Bhutto his loyalty. This did, however decrease his support within the army and it is believed several factions of the army that sided with Gen. Tajammul later caused Gen Zia’s death.[citation needed]

Bhutto responded with the use of Federal Security Force (FSF) and Police to control the situation as many activists of PNA were imprisoned.[2] One leader of the PNA secretly wrote a letter to chiefs of staff of armed forces and chairman joint chiefs to intervene to end the crises; thus inviting armed forces to enforce martial law.[2]

In 1977, one official of the Military Intelligence (MI) had persuaded Prime Minister Bhutto that martial law was imminent, and to speed up the negotiations with the PNA. The PPP realised the seriousness of the crises and political negotiations were started in June 1977. The PPP accepted almost all demands of the PNA and the stage was set for a compromise. The negotiations were stalled when Bhutto took the lengthy tour of Middle East countries and the PNA termed his tour as dilatory tactics. Furthermore, there was an impression created in the print media that negotiations were falling apart.[6][page needed]

After the letter reached to the chiefs of staff of armed forces and chairman joint chiefs, there was a fury of meeting of inter-services to discuss the situation.[6] When Bhutto returned to the country and in spite of the agreement was about to sign with the PNA.[6] The military staged a coup against Bhutto to end the political crises.

Coup[edit source]

Operation Fair Play was the code name for the military coup d’état conducted on 5 July 1977 by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq, overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The pretext for the coup was the failure of the ruling PPP and the opposition PNA to reach an agreement regarding fresh elections. The code name Fair Play was intended to portray the coup as the benign intervention of an impartial referee to uphold respect for the rules and ensure free and fair elections.[7]

In announcing the coup, Zia promised “free and fair elections” within 90 days.[8] He arrested Bhutto and his ministers, as well as other leaders of both the PPP and the PNA.[9] He dissolved the National Assembly of Pakistan and all provincial assemblies, suspended the Constitution, and imposed martial law.[10] A four-member Military Council, made up of Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq as Chief Martial Law Administrator, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, and the Chiefs of the Navy and the Air Force, took over government operations in the country.[11]

Bhutto and the PPP was persecuted on the charges of murder of political opponents.[6][page needed]

Supreme Court[edit source]

The Supreme Court and the Chief Justice of Pakistan Anwar-ul-Haq legitimatised the military response after issuing the Doctrine of necessity orders.[6] On 24 October 1977, the Supreme Court began the trial against Bhutto on charges of “conspiracy to murder” Nawab Muhammad Ahmed Khan Kasuri.[12]

In 1977, the Supreme Court found Bhutto guilty of murder charges and condemned him to death.[6] Despite appeals of clemency sent by many nations, the government upheld the Supreme Court verdict and followed the Supreme Court orders when Bhutto was hanged in 1979.[6]

Soviet Union and United States[edit source]

When the martial law took place, the whole world was quiet, and regional countries (such as India and China) did not issue any statements. Only two countries issued the statements over this issue.[6] The USSR did not welcome the martial law and Bhutto’s subsequent execution. The USSR harshly criticised the coup and Leonid Brezhnev condemned Bhutto’s execution as an act out of “purely humane motives”.[13]

The US played an ambiguous role instead with many charging that the martial law was imposed with the willingness and “tacit”[14] approval of the US and the CIA’s involvement.[14][14] It is very important to note that event took place at the defining moments of Cold war. Soviet Union decided to invade Afghanistan and US has to bring its trusted person in Power and US deliberately brought in Gen Zia. Henry Kissinger had warned Bhutto that he will make an example of him so he did.

When allegations were levelled against the US by Pakistani historians and scholars, US officials reacted angrily and held Bhutto responsible for his act.[6] Despite US denial, many authors, and the PPP’s intellectuals themselves,[15] held the US responsible and suspected the US of playing a “hidden noble role” behind the coup.[15]

In 1998, Benazir Bhutto and the PPP publicly announced their belief in the electronic media that Zulfikar Bhutto was “sent to the gallows at the instance of the superpower for pursuing the nuclear capability [of Pakistan].”[16]

Aftermath[edit source]

Before the third martial law in 1977, Pakistan had been under martial law for nearly 13 years, and saw the wars with India which led to the secession of East Pakistan. The Martial law endured the toxic legacies of General Zia-ul-Haq’s eleven years of authoritarian rule. It was marked by numerous human rights violations.[6] A weak insurgent movement against General Zia’s government was maintained inside the country by elements sympathetic to the former Bhutto government, but was met with great hostility from the United States and General Zia.[6][page needed]

The martial law of 1977 ended in 1988 with the death of President Zia-ul-Haq and many other key military administrators in the government. Following this event, the country returned to democracy and the PPP again came in power. In 1999, martial law was again imposed against Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif by the armed forces, resulting in General Pervez Musharraf coming to power for nine years.

References[edit source]

Jump up ^ Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali. If I am assasinated (PDF) (1 ed.). Lahore: PPP. Retrieved 22 September 2017.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m “Ouster of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto”. Story of Pakistan. 1 January 2003. Retrieved 4 July 2013.

Jump up ^ “General Elections 1977”. Story of Pakistan. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 14 December 2014.

Jump up ^ Talbot, Ian (1998). Pakistan, a Modern History. NY: St.Martin’s Press. pp. 240–1.

Jump up ^ Talbot, Ian (1998). Pakistan, a Modern History. NY: St.Martin’s Press. p. 241.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan:Between Mosque and Military; §From Islamic Republic to Islamic State. United States: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (July 2005). pp. 395 pages. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1.

Jump up ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1.

Jump up ^ Haqqani 2005, p. 123

Jump up ^ Hyman, Anthony; Ghayur, Muhammed; Kaushik, Naresh (1989). Pakistan, Zia and After–. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 30. ISBN 81-7017-253-5.

Jump up ^ Dossani, Rafiq; Rowen, Henry S. (2005). Prospects for Peace in South Asia. Stanford University Press. pp. 42, 49. ISBN 978-0-8047-5085-1.

Jump up ^ Hyman, Ghayur & Kaushik 1989, pp. 138–139: “Mr Fazal Elahi Chaudhry has very kindly consented to continue to discharge his duties as President of Pakistan … To assist him in the discharge of his national duties, a four-member Military Council has been formed. The Council consists of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Chiefs of Staff of the Army [Zia], Navy, and Air Force. I will discharge the duties of the Chief Martial Law Administrator.”

Jump up ^ Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin. p. 438. ISBN 0-395-73097-X.

Jump up ^ Kamminga, Menno T. (1992). Inter-State Accountability of Violation of Human Rights. University of Pennsylvania, U.S.: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 19–198. ISBN 978-0-8122-3176-2.

^ Jump up to: a b c Panhwar, Member of Sindh Provincial Assembly., Sani (5 April 1979). “CIA Sent Bhutto to the Gallows”. The New York Times (article published in 1979) and Sani H. Panhwar, member of Sindh Provincial Assembly and Party representative of Pakistan People’s Party. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2011. “I [Ramsey Clark] do not believe in conspiracy theories in general, but the similarities in the staging of riots in Chile (where the CIA allegedly helped overthrow President Salvadore Allande) and in Pakistan are just too close, Bhutto was removed from power in Pakistan by force on 5 July, after the usual party on the 4th at the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad, with U.S. approval, if not more, by General Zia-ul-Haq. Bhutto was falsely accused and brutalized for months during proceedings that corrupted the Judiciary of Pakistan before being murdered, then hanged. As Americans, we must ask ourselves this: Is it possible that a rational military leader under the circumstances in Pakistan could have overthrown a constitutional government, without at least the tacit approval of the United States?”.

^ Jump up to: a b Bhurgari, Abdul Ghafoor. “The Falcon of Pakistan”. Abdul Ghafoor Bugari. Abdul Ghafoor Bugari and Sani Penhwar, Member of Parliament. Retrieved 26 January 2012.[permanent dead link]

Jump up ^ Malick, Nasir Malick (10 May 1998). “Benazir vows to fight on people’s side”. DawnWireService (DWS). Retrieved 17 November 2011.

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The New York City blackout of 1977 was an electricity blackout that affected most of New York City on July 13–14, 1977.

Timeline · Effects · References

New York City blackout of 1977

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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“New York blackout” redirects here. For the song “New York Blackout” by Soul Asylum, see Candy from a Stranger. For the blackout of 2003, see Northeast blackout of 2003.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The New York City blackout of 1977 was an electricity blackout that affected most of New York City on July 13–14, 1977. The only neighborhoods in the city that were not affected were in southern Queens; neighborhoods of the Rockaways, which were part of the Long Island Lighting Company system; and the Pratt Institute campus in Brooklyn which operated its own historic power generator.

Unlike other blackouts that affected the region, namely the Northeast blackouts of 1965 and 2003, the 1977 blackout was confined to New York City and its immediate surrounding areas. Also, in contrast to the 1965 and 2003 blackouts, the 1977 blackout resulted in citywide looting and other acts of criminal activity, including arson.[1]

Contents [hide]

1 Timeline

2 Effects

3 In popular culture

4 See also

5 References

6 Further reading

7 External links

Timeline[edit source]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The events leading up to the blackout began at 8:37 p.m. EDT on Wednesday, July 13 with a lightning strike at Buchanan South, a substation on the Hudson River, tripping two circuit breakers in Buchanan, New York. The Buchanan South substation converted the 345,000 volts of electricity from Indian Point to lower voltage for commercial use. A loose locking nut combined with a slow-acting upgrade cycle prevented the breaker from reclosing and allowing power to flow again.

A second lightning strike caused the loss of two 345 kV transmission lines, subsequent reclose of only one of the lines, and the loss of power from a 900MW nuclear plant at Indian Point. As a result of the strikes, two other major transmission lines became loaded over their normal limits. Per procedure, Consolidated Edison, the power provider for New York City and some of Westchester County, tried to start fast-start generation at 8:45 p.m. EDT; however, no one was manning the station, and the remote start failed.

At 8:55 p.m. EDT, there was another lightning strike at the Sprain Brook substation in Yonkers, which took out two additional critical transmission lines. As before, only one of the lines was automatically returned to service. This outage of lines from the substation caused the remaining lines to exceed the long-term operating limits of their capacity. After this last failure, Con Edison had to manually reduce the loading on another local generator at their East River facility, due to problems at the plant. This made an already dire situation even worse.

At 9:14 p.m. EDT, over 30 minutes from the initial event, New York Power Pool Operators in Guilderland called for Con Edison operators to “shed load.” In response, Con Ed operators initiated first a 5% system-wide voltage reduction and then an 8% reduction. These steps had to be completed sequentially and took many minutes. These steps were done in accordance with Con Edison’s use of the words “shed load” while the Power Pool operators had in mind opening feeders to immediately drop about 1500 MW of load, not reduce voltage to reduce load a few hundred MW.

At 9:19 p.m. EDT the final major interconnection to Upstate New York at Leeds substation tripped due to thermal overload which caused the 345kV conductors to sag excessively into an unidentified object. This trip caused the 138 kV links with Long Island to overload, and a major interconnection with PSEG in New Jersey began to load even higher than previously reported.

At 9:22 p.m. EDT, Long Island Lighting Company opened its 345 kV interconnection to Con Edison to reduce power that was flowing through its system and overloading 138 kV submarine cables between Long Island and Connecticut. While Long Island operators were securing permission from the Power Pool operators to open their 345 kV tie to New York City, phase shifters between New York City and New Jersey were being adjusted to correct heavy flows, and this reduced the loading on the 115 kV cables. The Long Island operators did not notice the drop in 115 kV cable loadings and went ahead with opening their 345 kV tie to New York City.

At 9:24 p.m. EDT, the Con Edison operator tried and failed to manually shed load by dropping customers. Five minutes later, at 9:29 p.m. EDT, the Goethals-Linden 230 kV interconnection with New Jersey tripped, and the Con Edison system automatically began to isolate itself from the outside world through the action of protective devices that remove overloaded lines, transformers, and cables from service.

Con Ed could not generate enough power within the city, and the three power lines that supplemented the city’s power were overtaxed. Just after 9:27 p.m. EDT, the biggest generator in New York City, Ravenswood 3 (also known as “Big Allis”), shut down and with it went all of New York City.[2]

By 9:36 p.m. EDT, the entire Con Edison power system shut down, almost exactly an hour after the first lightning strike. By 10:26 p.m. EDT operators started a restoration procedure.

Power was not fully restored until late the following day. Among the outcomes of the blackout were detailed restoration procedures that are well documented and used in operator training to reduce restoration time.

Effects[edit source]

The blackout occurred when the city was facing a severe financial crisis and its residents were fretting over the Son of Sam murders. The nation as a whole was suffering from a protracted economic downturn, and commentators have contrasted the event with the good-natured “Where Were You When the Lights Went Out?” atmosphere of 1965. Some pointed to the financial crisis as a root cause of the disorder, others noted the hot July weather, as the Northeast at the time was in the middle of a brutal heat wave. Still others pointed out that the 1977 blackout came after businesses had closed and their owners went home, while in 1965 the blackout occurred during the day and owners stayed to protect their property. However, the 1977 looters continued their damage into the daylight hours, with police on alert.[1]

Looting and vandalism were widespread, hitting 31 neighborhoods, including most poor neighborhoods in the city. Possibly the hardest hit were Crown Heights, where 75 stores on a five-block stretch were looted, and Bushwick, where arson was rampant with some 25 fires still burning the next morning. At one point two blocks of Broadway, which separates Bushwick from Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn, were on fire. Thirty-five blocks of Broadway were destroyed: 134 stores looted, 45 of them set ablaze. Thieves stole 50 new Pontiacs from a Bronx car dealership.[1] In Brooklyn, youths were seen backing up cars to targeted stores, tying ropes around the stores’ grates, and using their cars to pull the grates away before looting the store.[1] While 550 police officers were injured in the mayhem, 4,500 looters were arrested.[1]

Mayor Abe Beame spoke during the blackout about what citizens were up against during the blackout and what the costs would be.

We’ve seen our citizens subjected to violence, vandalism, theft, and discomfort. The Blackout has threatened our safety and has seriously impacted our economy. We’ve been needlessly subjected to a night of terror in many communities that have been wantonly looted and burned. The costs when finally tallied will be enormous.[3]

During New York’s 2003 blackout, The New York Times ran a description of the blackout of 1977:

Because of the power failure, LaGuardia and Kennedy airports were closed down for about eight hours, automobile tunnels were closed because of lack of ventilation, and 4,000 people had to be evacuated from the subway system. ConEd called the shutdown an “act of God”, enraging Mayor Beame, who charged that the utility was guilty of “gross negligence.”[4]

In all, 1,616 stores were damaged in looting and rioting. A total of 1,037 fires were responded to, including 14 multiple-alarm fires. In the largest mass arrest in city history, 3,776 people were arrested. Many had to be stuffed into overcrowded cells, precinct basements and other makeshift holding pens. A congressional study estimated that the cost of damages amounted to a little over $300 million (equivalent to $1.2 billion in 2017).

Despite the massive looting and violence that had accompanied it, only one homicide occurred. Dominick Ciscone, a Brooklyn teenager and aspiring mobster, was shot on Smith Street in Carroll Gardens while in the company of some friends; he died at the scene. Police investigated several people in the neighborhood with whom he had ongoing disputes, but never identified any suspects. In 1997 they received some more tips from individuals who did not identify themselves but whom they believed genuinely might know who committed the crime; they did not respond to pleas to identify themselves. As of 2018 the killing remains unsolved.[5]

Shea Stadium went dark at approximately 9:30 p.m., in the bottom of the sixth inning, with Lenny Randle at bat. The New York Mets were losing 2–1 against the Chicago Cubs. Jane Jarvis, Shea’s organist and “Queen of Melody”, played “Jingle Bells” and “White Christmas”. The game was completed on September 16, with the Cubs winning 5–2.[6]

It would not be until the next morning that power would begin being restored to those areas affected. Around 7 a.m. on July 14, a section of Queens became the first area to get power back, followed shortly afterwards by Lenox Hill, Manhattan; the neighboring Yorkville area on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, though, would turn out to be one of the very last areas to get power back that Thursday evening. By 1:45 p.m., service was restored to half of Con Edison’s customers, mostly in Staten Island and Queens. It was not until 10:39 p.m. on July 14 that the entire city’s power was back online.

For much of July 14, most of the television stations in New York City were off the air (as the areas where those TV stations were located were still without power for much of the day), although WCBS-TV (Channel 2) and WNBC-TV (Channel 4) did manage to stay on the air thanks to gas and diesel-fueled generators, resuming their broadcasts only 25 and 88 minutes after the blackout began, respectively.[7] Also, although much of New York City was still without power, Belmont Park (a racetrack on the border of Queens and Nassau County in Elmont) did stage their scheduled racing program that afternoon in front of a relatively sparse crowd, as many thought racing would be cancelled that day due to the blackout.

During the blackout, numerous looters stole DJ equipment from electronics stores. As a result, the hip hop genre, barely known outside the Bronx at the time, grew at an astounding rate from 1977 onward.[8] Three decades later, Curtis Fisher recalled for a Slate article and podcast that, when the power went out, he and his partner DJ Disco Wiz were playing records, running their equipment from an outlet in a park. At first they thought the outage was local and caused by something they had done, but realized when they heard stores closing that it was citywide. He took advantage of the community’s vulnerability to steal a mixing board from a local business, as did other aspiring rappers and DJs. “I went right to the place where I bought my first set of DJ equipment, and I went and got me a mixer out of there.”[9]

The blackout also caused complications for the producers of the film Superman, who were shooting in the area.

The city was eventually given over $11 million by the Carter administration to pay for the damages of the blackout.[3]

Beame accused Con Edison of “gross negligence” but would eventually feel the effect himself. In the mayoral election that year, Beame finished third in the Democratic primary to Ed Koch and Mario Cuomo. Koch would go on to win the general election.

The operating entities in New York fully investigated the blackout, its related causes, and the operator actions. They implemented significant changes, which are still in effect today, to guard against a similar occurrence. Despite these safeguards, there was a blackout in August 2003, although this was caused by a power system failure as far away as Eastlake, Ohio.

In popular culture[edit source]

In Lee Child’s short story High Heat, a teenaged Jack Reacher is in New York during the blackout.

In the film Men In Black, Tommy Lee Jones’s character states an alien device was the cause of the blackout as a practical joke.

The 2008 Broadway musical “In The Heights” has a song based on the blackout. The song titled “Blackout” included reports of theft, riots in the streets, and destruction of property.

In the 2016 the Netflix drama series The Get Down showed the experience of the teenage boys of the Bronx during the blackout.

The 2017 film Wonderstruck featured the 1977 New York City blackout as a major plot element.

See also[edit source]

icon 1970s portal

Brittle Power

List of major power outages

Northeast blackout of 1965

Northeast blackout of 2003

List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States

References[edit source]

^ Jump up to: a b c d e Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The ’70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.

Jump up ^ Mahler, Jonathan (2005). Ladies and Gentlemen, The Bronx is Burning. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

^ Jump up to: a b “New York Blackout II, 1977 Year in Review”. upi.com. Retrieved 2012-06-11.

Jump up ^ Gottlieb, Martin; Glanz, James (August 15, 2003). “The Blackouts of ’65 and ’77 Became Defining Moments in the City’s History”. New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010.

Jump up ^ Hamilton, Brad (June 3, 2017). “The mystery behind the only murder during the 1977 NYC blackout”. New York Post. Retrieved October 4, 2017.

Jump up ^ “Shea Stadium – July 13, 1977”. Loge 13. Archived from the original on April 30, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.

Jump up ^ “Show goes on in blackout” (PDF). Broadcasting Magazine. 18 July 1977. Retrieved 12 March 2017.

Jump up ^ Jody Rosen, “A Rolling Shout-Out to Hip-Hop History”, The New York Times, February 12, 2006

Jump up ^ Mars, Roman; Hall, Delaney (October 16, 2014). “Was the 1977 New York City Blackout a Catalyst for Hip-Hop’s Growth?”. Retrieved October 21, 2014.

Further reading[edit source]

Goodman, James (2003), Blackout. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux

External links[edit source]

1977 section contains airchecks from the blackout, Musicradio 77 WABC.

Archive of accounts and reports relating to the blackout, Blackout History Project, George Mason University Center for History and New Media

Coordinates: 41.269°N 73.954°W

Categories: 1977 disasters1977 in New York (state)1977 events in the United StatesCrimes in New York CityElectric power blackouts of the United StatesHistory of New York CityHistory of the Northeastern United StatesJuly 1977 eventsRiots and civil disorder in New York CityUrban decay in the United States

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signal was a strong narrowband radio signal received on August 15, 1977, by Ohio State University’s Big Ear radio telescope in the United States, then used to support the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

Ohio State University Radio … · SHGb02+14a · Tau Sagittarii · Fast radio burst

This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

Wow! signal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search

The Wow! signal represented as “6EQUJ5”. The original printout with Ehman’s handwritten exclamation is preserved by Ohio History Connection.[1]

The Wow! signal was a strong narrowband radio signal received on August 15, 1977, by Ohio State University’s Big Ear radio telescope in the United States, then used to support the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The signal appeared to come from the constellation Sagittarius and bore the expected hallmarks of extraterrestrial origin.

Astronomer Jerry R. Ehman discovered the anomaly a few days later while reviewing the recorded data. He was so impressed by the result that he circled the reading on the computer printout and wrote the comment Wow! on its side, leading to the event’s widely used name.[2]

The entire signal sequence lasted for the full 72-second window during which Big Ear was able to observe it, but has not been detected since, despite several subsequent attempts by Ehman and others. Many hypotheses have been advanced on the origin of the emission, including natural and man-made sources, but none of them adequately explains the result.[3] The Wow! signal remains the strongest candidate for an alien radio transmission ever detected.[3]

Contents [hide]

1 Background

2 Signal measurement

2.1 Frequency

2.2 Time variation

2.3 Bandwidth

3 Celestial location

4 Hypotheses on the signal’s origin

5 Searches for recurrence of the signal

6 Response

7 In popular culture

8 See also

9 References

10 External links

Background[edit source]

In a 1959 paper, Cornell physicists Philip Morrison and Giuseppe Cocconi had speculated that any extraterrestrial civilization attempting to communicate via radio signals might do so using a frequency of 1420 megahertz (21 centimeters), which is naturally emitted by hydrogen, the most common element in the universe and therefore likely familiar to all technologically advanced civilizations.[4]

In 1973, after completing an extensive survey of extragalactic radio sources, Ohio State University assigned the now-defunct Ohio State University Radio Observatory (nicknamed “Big Ear”) to the scientific search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), in the longest-running program of its kind in history. The radio telescope was located near the Perkins Observatory on the campus of Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, Ohio.

By 1977, Ehman was working at the SETI project as a volunteer; his job involved analyzing by hand large amounts of data processed by an IBM 1130 computer and recorded on line printer paper. While perusing data collected on August 15 at 22:16 EDT (02:16 UTC), he spotted a series of values of signal intensity and frequency that left him and his colleagues astonished.[4] The event was later documented in technical detail by the observatory’s director. [5]

Signal measurement[edit source]

Plot of signal intensity versus time, fitted with a Gaussian function.

The alphanumeric sequence circled by Ehman, 6EQUJ5, represents the intensity variation of the radio signal over time, measured as unitless signal-to-noise ratio and ranging from 0 to 36, with the noise averaged over the previous few minutes. Each individual character corresponds to a sample of the signal, taken every 12 seconds. A space character on the printout denotes an intensity between 0 and 1; the numbers “1” to “9” denote the correspondingly numbered intensities (from 1 to 9); intensities of 10 and above are indicated by a letter: “A” corresponds to intensities between 10 and 11, “B” to 11 to 12, and so on. The highest measured value was “U” (an intensity between 30 and 31), that is thirty times stronger than normal background noise.[2][6]

A common misconception is that the Wow! signal constitutes some sort of message. In fact, what was received appears to be an unmodulated, continuous wave signal with no encoded information; essentially a flash of radio energy. The string “6EQUJ5” is merely the representation of the expected variation of signal intensity over time, expressed in the particular measuring system adopted for the experiment.[7]

Frequency[edit source]

Two different values for the signal’s frequency have been given: 1420.36 MHz (J. D. Kraus) and 1420.46 MHz (J. R. Ehman), both very close to the value of 1420.41 MHz of the hydrogen line, as predicted by Morrison and Cocconi. The two values are nearly the same distance from the hydrogen line – the first 0.04975 MHz (49.75 kHz) below and the second 0.04985 MHz (49.85 kHz) above.[8]

A heat map of the computer printout, giving a spectrogram of the beam; the Wow! signal appears as a bright spot in the lower left.

Ehman analyzed the discrepancy between the two published frequencies. He concluded that an oscillator, which became the first local oscillator (LO), was ordered for the frequency of 1450.4056 MHz. However, the university’s purchasing department made a typographical error in the order and wrote 1450.5056 MHz (i.e., 0.1 MHz higher than desired). The software used in the experiment was then written to adjust for this error. When Ehman computed the frequency of the Wow! Signal, he took this error into account.[citation needed]

Time variation[edit source]

At the time of the observation, the Big Ear radio telescope was only adjustable for declination (or height above the horizon), and relied instead on the rotation of the Earth to scan across the sky. Given the speed of Earth’s rotation and the spatial width of the telescope’s observation window, the Big Ear could observe any given point for just 72 seconds.[3] A continuous extraterrestrial signal, therefore, would be expected to register for exactly 72 seconds, and the recorded intensity of such signal would display a gradual increase for the first 36 seconds – peaking at the center of the observation window – and then a gradual decrease as the telescope moved away from it. All these characteristics are present in the Wow! signal.[9][10]

Bandwidth[edit source]

The Wow! signal was a narrowband emission: its bandwidth was less than 10 kHz. The Big Ear telescope was equipped with a receiver capable of measuring fifty 10 kHz-wide channels. The output from each channel was represented in the computer printout as a column of alphanumeric intensity values. The Wow! signal is essentially confined to one column.[8]

Celestial location[edit source]

The two regions of space in the constellation Sagittarius from where the Wow! signal may have originated. The ambiguity is due to how the experiment was designed. For clarity, the widths (right ascension) of the red bands have been exaggerated.

The precise location in the sky where the signal apparently originated is uncertain due to the design of the Big Ear telescope, which featured two feed horns, each receiving a beam from slightly different directions, while following Earth’s rotation. The Wow! signal was detected in one beam but not in the other, and the data was processed in such a way that it is impossible to determine which of the two horns received the signal.[11] There are, therefore, two possible right ascension (RA) values for the location of the signal (expressed below in terms of the two main reference systems):[12]

B1950 equinox J2000 equinox

RA (positive horn) 19h22m24.64s ± 5s 19h25m31s ± 10s

RA (negative horn) 19h25m17.01s ± 5s 19h28m22s ± 10s

In contrast, the declination was unambiguously determined to be as follows:

B1950 equinox J2000 equinox

Declination −27°03′ ± 20′ −26°57′ ± 20′

The region of the sky in question lies northwest of the globular cluster M55, in the constellation Sagittarius, roughly 2.5 degrees south of the fifth-magnitude star group Chi Sagittarii, and about 3.5 degrees south of the plane of the ecliptic. The closest easily visible star is Tau Sagittarii.[13]

Hypotheses on the signal’s origin[edit source]

A number of hypotheses have been advanced as to the source and nature of the Wow! signal. None of them have achieved widespread acceptance.

Interstellar scintillation of a weaker continuous signal—similar in effect to atmospheric twinkling—could be an explanation, but that would not exclude the possibility of the signal being artificial in origin. The significantly more sensitive Very Large Array did not detect the signal, and the probability that a signal below the detection threshold of the Very Large Array could be detected by the Big Ear due to interstellar scintillation is low.[14] Other hypotheses include a rotating lighthouse-like source, a signal sweeping in frequency, or a one-time burst.[12]

Ehman has said: “We should have seen it again when we looked for it 50 times. Something suggests it was an Earth-sourced signal that simply got reflected off a piece of space debris.”[15] He later recanted his skepticism somewhat, after further research showed an Earth-borne signal to be very unlikely, given the requirements of a space-borne reflector being bound to certain unrealistic requirements to sufficiently explain the signal.[8] Also, it is problematic to propose that the 1420 MHz signal originated from Earth since this is within a protected spectrum: a bandwidth reserved for astronomical purposes in which terrestrial transmitters are forbidden to transmit.[16][17] In a 1997 paper, Ehman resists “drawing vast conclusions from half-vast data”—acknowledging the possibility that the source may have been military or otherwise a product of Earth-bound humans.[18]

METI president Douglas Vakoch told Die Welt that any putative SETI signal detections must be replicated for confirmation, and the lack of such replication for the Wow! signal means it has little credibility.[19]

In a 2012 podcast, scientific skeptic author Brian Dunning concluded that a radio transmission from deep space in the direction of Sagittarius, as opposed to a near-Earth origin, remains the best technical explanation for the emission, although there is no evidence to conclude that an alien intelligence was the source.[3]

In 2017, Antonio Paris proposed that the hydrogen cloud surrounding two comets, 266P/Christensen and 335P/Gibbs, now known to have been in roughly the right position, could have been the source of the Wow! signal.[20][21][22] However, this theory has attracted strong criticism, including from members of the original Big Ear research team, as a more detailed analysis shows the cited comets were not in the beam at the correct time. Furthermore, comets are not radio-bright at these frequencies, and there is no explanation for why a comet would be observed in one beam but not in the other.[23][24]

Searches for recurrence of the signal[edit source]

Several attempts were made by Ehman and other astronomers to recover and identify the signal. The signal was expected to occur three minutes apart in each of the telescope’s feed horns, but that did not happen.[10] Ehman unsuccessfully searched for recurrences using Big Ear in the months after the detection.[14]

In 1987 and 1989, Robert H. Gray searched for the event using the META array at Oak Ridge Observatory, but did not detect it.[14][25] In a July 1995 test of signal detection software to be used in its upcoming Project Argus search, SETI League executive director H. Paul Shuch made several drift-scan observations of the Wow! signal’s coordinates with a 12-meter radio telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia, also achieving a null result.

In 1995 and 1996, Gray again searched for the signal using the Very Large Array, which is significantly more sensitive than Big Ear.[14][25] Gray and Simon Ellingsen later searched for recurrences of the event in 1999 using the 26-meter radio telescope at the University of Tasmania’s Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory.[26] Six 14-hour observations were made at positions in the vicinity, but nothing like the Wow! signal was detected.[10][25]

Response[edit source]

In 2012, on the 35th anniversary of the Wow! signal, Arecibo Observatory beamed a digital stream toward the area of the signal’s origin. The transmission consisted of approximately 10,000 Twitter messages solicited for the purpose by the National Geographic Channel, bearing the hashtag “#ChasingUFOs” (a promotion for one of the channel’s TV series).[27] The sponsor also included a series of video vignettes featuring verbal messages from various celebrities.[28]

To increase the probability that any extraterrestrial recipients would recognize the signal as an intentional communication from another intelligent life form, Arecibo scientists attached a repeating-sequence header to each individual message, and beamed the transmission at roughly 20 times the wattage of the most powerful commercial radio transmitter.[27]

In popular culture[edit source]

In 1995, H. Paul Shuch composed the filk song Ballad of the “Wow!” Signal,[29] which is sung to the tune of Ballad of Springhill by Peggy Seeger.[30]

In 2016, Jean-Michel Jarre released the Oxygène 17 music video[31] which is dedicated to the Wow! signal.

In a 2017 Super Bowl commercial spoofing conspiracy theories such as the moon landing hoax, Area 51, and subliminal advertising, the base of a stone monolith carries the inscription “6EQUJ5”.[32][33]

The Wow! signal was mentioned in the X-Files episode “Little Green Men”.

The Wow! Signal is used as the source of the alien power suit in the movie “Lazer Team”.

See also[edit source]

Astrobiology portal

Arecibo message, a 3-minute-long message sent into space

Fast radio burst

KIC 8462852, “Tabby’s star”

Radio signal from HD 164595

Radio source SHGb02+14a

References[edit source]

Jump up ^ Wood, Lisa (July 3, 2010). “WOW!”. Ohio History Connection Collections Blog. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

^ Jump up to: a b Krulwich, Robert (May 29, 2010). “Aliens Found In Ohio? The ‘Wow!’ Signal”. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

^ Jump up to: a b c d Dunning, Brian. “Skeptoid #342: Was the Wow! Signal Alien?”. Skeptoid. Retrieved 2016-10-08.

^ Jump up to: a b Kiger, Patrick J. (2012-06-21). “What is the Wow! signal?”. National Geographic Channel. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

Jump up ^ John Kraus, Director, Ohio State Radio Observatory 31, January 1994, “The Tantalizing WOW! Signal”, Copy of letter to Carl Sagan containing an unpublished paper describing the event.

Jump up ^ Ehman, Jerry. “Explanation of the Code “6EQUJ5″ On the Wow! Computer Printout”. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

Jump up ^ Shuch, H. Paul. “SETI Sensitivity: Calibrating on a Wow! Signal”. SETI League. Retrieved 2016-06-25.

^ Jump up to: a b c Ehman, Jerry R. (February 3, 1998). “The Big Ear Wow! Signal. What We Know and Don’t Know About It After 20 Years”. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

Jump up ^ “EDN Moments”. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

^ Jump up to: a b c Shostak, Seth (2002-12-05). “Interstellar Signal From the 70s Continues to Puzzle Researchers”. space.com. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

Jump up ^ “Big Ear’s Twin Feed Horns”. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

^ Jump up to: a b Gray, Robert; Marvel, Kevin (2001). “A VLA Search for the Ohio State ‘Wow'” (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 546 (2): 1171–77. Bibcode:2001ApJ…546.1171G. doi:10.1086/318272.

Jump up ^ Ehman, Jerry R. (May 28, 2010). “The Big Ear Wow! Signal (30th Anniversary Report)”. North American AstroPhysical Observatory. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

^ Jump up to: a b c d “The ‘Wow!’ Signal”. Discovery Channel. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

Jump up ^ Kawa, Barry (1994-09-18). “The Wow! signal”. Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

Jump up ^ “Significant Radio Astronomy Frequencies”. SETI League. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

Jump up ^ Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies Handbook for Radio Astronomy (PDF) (3rd ed.). European Science Foundation. 2005. p. 101.

Jump up ^ Frank, Adam (July 10, 2012). “Talking To Aliens From Outer Space”. NPR. Retrieved 2016-07-02.

Jump up ^ Marsiske, Hans-Arthur (2007-09-12). “Welche Sprache sprechen Außerirdische?”. Die Welt.

Jump up ^ Paris, Antonio (1 January 2016). “Hydrogen Clouds from Comets 266/P Christensen and P/2008 Y2 (Gibbs) are Candidates for the Source of the 1977 “WOW” Signal”. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 15 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.

Jump up ^ Paris, Antonio (1 April 2017). “Hydrogen Line Observations of Cometary Spectra at 1420 MHZ”. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 103 (2). Retrieved 13 June 2017.

Jump up ^ https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.04642

Jump up ^ Dixon, Robert S, Dr. “Rebuttal of the claim that the “WOW!” signal was caused by a comet”. NAAPO. North American Astrophysical Observatory. Retrieved 13 June 2017.

Jump up ^ Emspak, Jesse (11 January 2016). “Famous Wow! signal might have been from comets, not aliens”. New Scientist. Retrieved 13 June 2017.

^ Jump up to: a b c Gray, Robert H (2012). The Elusive WOW: Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. Chicago: Palmer Square Press. ISBN 978-0-9839584-4-4.

Jump up ^ Gray, Robert; Ellingsen, S. (2002). “A Search for Periodic Emissions at the Wow Locale”. The Astrophysical Journal. 578 (2): 967–71. Bibcode:2002ApJ…578..967G. doi:10.1086/342646.

^ Jump up to: a b Wolchover, Natalie (2012-06-27). “Possible Alien Message to Get Reply from Humanity”. Discovery News.

Jump up ^ “Humanity Responds to ‘Alien’ Wow Signal, 35 Years Later”. space.com. 2012-08-12.

Jump up ^ Ballad of the Wow! Signal, sung by Dr. SETI (Speaker Icon.svg Page will play audio when loaded)

Jump up ^ H. Paul Shuch: Ballad of the “Wow!” Signal, SETI League Songbooks

Jump up ^ Oxygene Pt. 17. YouTube.

Jump up ^ Avocados From Mexico – Secret Society (Super Bowl 2017 Commercial) (video). YouTube: Avocados from Mexico. 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2018-04-16.

Jump up ^ Kuperinsky, Amy (2017-02-06). “Watch the 10 best Super Bowl 2017 commercials”. NJ.com. New Jersey On-Line. Retrieved 2017-08-15.

External links[edit source]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wow! signal.

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263 20 September 1977 The Petrozavodsk phenomenon was a series of celestial events of a disputed nature that occurred on September 20, 1977. The sightings were reported over a vast territory, from Copenhagen and Helsinki in the west to Vladivostok in the east.

Petrozavodsk phenomenon – Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrozavodsk_phenomenon

Petrozavodsk phenomenon

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A copy of the lost photograph of the Petrozavodsk object

The Petrozavodsk phenomenon was a series of celestial events of a disputed nature that occurred on September 20, 1977. The sightings were reported over a vast territory, from Copenhagen and Helsinki in the west to Vladivostok in the east.[1] It is named after the city of Petrozavodsk in Russia (then in the Soviet Union), where a glowing object was widely reported that showered the city with numerous rays.

Government officials from northern European countries sent letters to Anatoly Aleksandrov, president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, expressing concern about whether the observed phenomenon was caused by Soviet weapons testing and whether it constituted a threat to the region’s environment.[2] Since 1977,[3] the phenomenon has been often (though not universally) attributed to the launch of the Soviet satellite Kosmos-955. In the same year, a preliminary report for the Academy of Sciences of the USSR contained an immense body of visual observations, radiolocation reports, physical measurements, and accompanying meteorological data. It concluded that “based on the available data, it is unfeasible to satisfactorily understand the observed phenomenon”.[4] The Petrozavodsk phenomenon contributed to the creation of Setka AN, a Soviet research program for anomalous atmospheric phenomena.[5]

Contents  [hide]

1 Name

2 Sightings

2.1 Petrozavodsk object

3 Instrumental detection

4 Soviet investigation

5 Proposed explanations

6 Note

7 References

Name[edit source]

In the early Soviet reports the Petrozavodsk phenomenon was referred to as the phenomenon of 20 September 1977.[6] Later it became known as the Petrozavodsk phenomenon. Sometimes it is also called the Petrozavodsk incident[2] or the Petrozavodsk miracle.[6] The phrase “unidentified flying object” in the Soviet Union was substituted by the term “anomalous phenomenon” for research purposes.[6]

Sightings[edit source]

Most sightings occurred between 1:00 and 1:20 a.m. UTC, when at least 48 unidentified objects reportedly appeared in the atmosphere.[7] Several sightings occurred before, at 1:00a.m. local time over Medvezhyegorsk, at 2:30 a.m. over Loukhi and at 3:00 a.m. over Kovdor and Palanga (Lithuania).[1] From approximately 3:00 to 3:25 a.m. an unidentified luminous object was observed by the supervising personnel of the Leningrad maritime trade port.[8] At 3:30 a.m. a flying object, surrounded by a luminous coat, was reportedly seen by the crew of the Soviet fishing vessel Primorsk, which was departing from the Primorsk harbour.[4] The object appeared to move noiselessly from the east, and near Primorsk it abruptly changed its direction to north.[4]

In Helsinki, Finland, the sightings of a glowing ball were reported by newspapers Ilta-Sanomat on September 20 and Kansan Uutiset the next day. The ball was observed by many residents, including taxi drivers, police functionaries and Helsinki Airport personnel.[8] An unidentified object was also observed near Turku by two men. At the distance of 300 m they spotted a spinning object similar to a lifebuoy, 10 m in diameter.[9] This claim was contested by Pekka Teerikorpi from Tuorla Observatory. Arguing that the entire phenomenon was caused by Kosmos-955, Teerikorpi believed that the actual distance was “many hundreds of kilometres” and that “such reports probably are due to the well-known fact that it is difficult to estimate distances of unfamiliar phenomena”.[10] Ilta-Sanomat also reported a sighting of a glowing object in Denmark, over Copenhagen, by the pilots of a Finnish airline aircraft flying from Rome.[8]

The glowing objects were also observed in various places of the Soviet Union, mostly in the northwest. The appearance of an unidentified object over Helsinki reportedly caused heavy radiotraffic on Soviet territory.[8] In the European part of the Soviet Union “bright, luminous bodies surrounded by extended shells and emitting light rays or jets of quaint shapes” were reported.[11] The “shells” reportedly “transformed and diffused within 10 to 15 minutes”, while “a more longlived, stable glow was observed, mostly in the northeastern part of the sky”.[11] The eyewitnesses included paramedics, on-duty militsiya functionaries, seamen and the longshoremen at Petrozavodsk’s port, military, local airport staff and an amateur astronomer.[2] The phenomenon was also observed by the members of the IZMIRAN geophysical expedition near Lekhta.[12] In Saint Petersburg, then Leningrad, the sighting of an unidentified object was reported by three nightshift employees of Pulkovo Airport, including air traffic controller B. Blagirev. According to Blagirev, he spotted a fireball-like object slightly larger than Venus at 3:55 a.m. in the north-north-east at an azimuth of 10°.[8] The object was surrounded by a spacious, rhythmically glowing coat with intricate structure and “the observed phenomenon had nothing similar to aurora”.[8] The object moved ascendantly to the observer, to the south-south-west, then it changed the direction to north-north-west and eventually disappeared.[8] All three airport employees failed to identify what they saw.[8] Further reports in the Soviet Union came from Primorsk (two eyewitnesses), Petrodvorets (one eyewitness), Lomonosov (three eyewitnesses), Podporozhye (three eyewitnesses), Polovina (one eyewitness), Leppäsyrjä (one eyewitness), Kem (several eyewitnesses), Põltsamaa, Liiva, Priozersk, Kestenga, Valday and other places.[4][8] Many reports were accompanied by drawings from eyewitnesses. By 30 December, 1978, the Soviet researchers collected a total of 85 reports on the Petrozavodsk phenomenon.[8]

In the settlement of Kurkijoki a luminous object was seen by engineer A. Novozhilov, who compared it to an airship. He reported the sighting to the candidate of technical sciences, Konstantin Polevitsky, who recorded it. Initially Novozhilov saw what he thought to be a meteor.[8] After some time the object had stopped and then moved towards Novozhilov, quickly increasing in size and acquiring the well-outlined shape of an airship.[8] The object was faceted and tipped with brightly shining spots on front and back. The edges were glowing with white light, which was slightly fainter than spots.[8] The facets resembled windows lit from inside and were evenly glowing with a white light that was fainter than that of the edges.[8] The object reportedly moved at an altitude of 300–500 m, being 100 m long and 12–15 m in diameter.[8] Still approaching Novozhilov, the object, moving from west to east, had released a brightly shining ball from the rear, which flew north. The ball was flying horizontally and then descended behind a forest. The landing reportedly caused the appearance of a bright glow.[8] At 4:15 a.m. Novozhilov took three unsuccessful photos of the sighting with a 0.1 sec exposure.[8] The object was “much larger than moon” and moved with the speed of a helicopter.[8] The observation lasted 10–15 minutes in complete silence.[8]

Another detailed account on one unidentified object was given by Soviet writer and philosopher Yuri Linnik. He observed the object on his dacha near Namoyevo at about 3:00 a.m. through an amateur telescope with an 80× magnification. That lens-like object, surrounded by a dim, translucent ring, had a color of a “dark amethyst, intensively lightened from inside”.[8] The edges of the lens-like object had 16 spots (described by Linnik as “nozzles”[13]) which emitted pulsating red rays at an angle of 10°–15°.[8] The angular size of the object was estimated at 20 arcminutes.[8] The object passed near stars Gamma Geminorum, Eta Geminorum, Capella, 172 Camelopardalis, 50 Cassiopeiae, Gamma Cephei, Psi Draconis, 16 Draconis, Psi Herculis, Kappa Coronae Borealis and Delta Coronae Borealis.[8] The object stopped near Gamma Cephei at an azimuth of 220°.[8] Near Kappa Coronae Borealis, at an azimuth of 340°–350° the object changed its direction to 30°–35° west.[8] It finally disappeared on the north at an azimuth of 340°. The duration of the flight was 15 minutes.[8]

Apart from ground observations, there were also reports from several aircraft. The crew of a Tu-154 spotted a luminous spherical object at an altitude of 12 km.[13] A bright, luminous object was also observed for a half an hour by Georgian writer Guram Pandzhikidze and other passengers of an aircraft returning from Singapore to Moscow at an altitude of 11 km,[13] at about 4:30 or 5:00 a.m. Pandzhikidze reported the sighting on 2 October to the director of Karelian Hydrometeorological Observatory Yuri Gromov, who verified the report’s copy.[14]

Petrozavodsk object[edit source]

Pravda report on the Petrozavodsk object, 23 September 1977. The headline is “unidentified nature phenomenon”.

At the time Petrozavodsk was the capital and a major industrial hub of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, with a population of 203,000 in 1974. The earliest published report of the Petrozavodsk phenomenon was written by TASS correspondent Nikolai Milov, who described the unidentified object over Petrozavodsk as “a huge star”, that “flared up in the dark sky” at about 4:00 a.m. local time, “impulsively sending shafts of light to the Earth”.[15] Milov’s report was published in the mainstream Soviet press (Pravda, Izvestiya, Selskaya Zhizn, and Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya). A local newspaper, Leninskaya Pravda, also reported the Petrozavodsk object. The preliminary data analysis by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1977 found the eyewitness’ reports to be mutually consistent and complementary.[4] Some eyewitness’s accounts were attested by Yuri Gromov. According to Milov, “the star” was spreading out over Petrozavodsk in the form of a jellyfish, “showering the city with a multitude of very fine rays which created an image of pouring rain”.[15] Milov further reported that “after some time the luminescent rays ceased” and “the jellyfish turned into a bright semicircle”, which resumed its movement towards Onega Lake.[15]

The object, surrounded by a translucent coat, was initially spotted at about 4:00 a.m. in the northeastern part of the sky below Ursa Major at an azimuth of about 40°.[4][16] The initial brightness of the object was “apparently comparable to that of Venus”.[4] The object moved ascendantly towards Ursa Major. The course angle as determined by former pilot and eyewitness V. Barkhatov was 240°.[4] As the object ascended, it was expanding and pulsating,[4] but a decrease in brightness was not noted. The object moved slowly for about three minutes.[8] Shortly before the object stopped it dispersed a bright “cloud”. The cloud was round or oval in shape.[4] Its maximum angular size was larger than that of Ursa Major, about 30° in diameter.[4] The altitude of the object during the formation of the “cloud” was estimated at 7.5±0.4 km (based on eyewitnesses’ observations) or at 6.0±0.5 km, based on parallax.[16][a] The linear diameter of the object’s core was estimated either at 119 or at about 60 m.[13] The diameter of the object’s jellyfish-like cupola was estimated by Felix Ziegel at about 105 m, based on the drawing of eyewitness Andrei Akimov.[13] The object itself was red in color and emitted a bluish white glow.[4] The lighting of the area was compared to that from a full moon.[4] According to eyewitness V. Trubachev, “the ground was lightened like in the white night”.[13] The glowing “cloud” then developed a dark spot around the central core. The spot was quickly expanding while the glow was fading away.[4] The object hovered over Petrozavodsk for five minutes and then moved away. Before hovering the object moved slowly, with the angular velocity of a passenger aircraft.[13] After the hovering its speed had increased. One eyewitness noted that the object’s underside resembled a Segner wheel.[13] The entire phenomenon lasted 10–15 minutes.[4] The Petrozavodsk object was also seen in adjacent places, such as Pryazha. In 1978, Tekhnika i Nauka published the colored reconstruction of various stages of the object.

In November, 1977, clinician psychologist Y. Andreyeva evaluated the mental condition of nine eyewitnesses of the Petrozavodsk phenomenon. She concluded that “one can be confident of complete mental sanity of the eyewitnesses and the veracity of their answers and testimonies”.[17] Nonetheless, several reports noted some impact of the phenomenon on humans and environment. According to A. Grakov, who observed a glowing yellow ball the size of a moon, the air above the lake in Petrozavodsk glowed with white light after the ball had disappeared.[13] The glow was more intense than that from Petrozavodsk’s lights.[13] According to Yuri Linnik, after 20 September 1977 there was increased biological activity in the areas where the phenomenon was observed. Noting that that increase might not be related to the Petrozavodsk phenomenon, Linnik nonetheless reported the blooming of roses in his garden and the second bloom of “about 10 species of herbaceous plants”.[13] Linnik called it “extraordinary for Karelia’s latitude” because “after the autumn equinox the vegetation of herbs almost ceases”.[13] He further emphasized the intense bloom of the water in Ukshozero, caused by Ankistrodesmus, shortly after 20 September.[13] Some impact on technical devices was also noted when the engineers in the Petrozavodsk area had reportedly observed “huge failures” in computing devices, which then regained normal performance.[18]

Instrumental detection[edit source]

The unidentified objects over the airports of Helsinki, Pulkovo and Peski were not detected by the airport radars.[8] Although, according to UPI, the object was detected by the Helsinki airport radar, the airport’s traffic controller Ari Hämäläinen claimed it was not.[8] The objects were not spotted by the Soviet air defense system either.[8] Later, however, the glowing objects were reportedly detected by the weather radar of Karelian Hydrometeorological Observatory in Petrozavodsk on 30 September at 5:40 p.m., 20 October at 11:30 p.m. and 20 November at 2:14–02:17 a.m.[8]

Soviet investigation[edit source]

A note of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, informing about the dispatch of an expert group to Karelia to study the phenomenon, 1978

The initial analysis of the phenomenon was made by the research fellow of Sternberg Astronomical Institute Lev Gindilis using various testimonies and meteorological data available by 30 September 1977. He wrote that the passage of one object at a reasonably high altitude, which allows simultaneous observations from all reported locations, is plausible at a flight altitude of c. 100 km or more.[19] Gindilis noted that in that case “the minimal linear dimensions of the bright spherical object should be about 1 kilometer, while the diameter of the coat – several tens of kilometers”.[19] Considering the launch of Kosmos-955 as the possible cause, Gindilis outlined several obstacles, such as the westward motion of the unidentified object (while Kosmos-955 was launched to the north-east), the observed angular sizes of it combined with the expected distance and prolonged hanging over Leppäsyrjä.[19] On 8 October 1977 a Sortavala newspaper Krasnoye Znamya published a report from a local hydrometeostation, which further confirmed that the Petrozavodsk object moved from northeast to southwest. The suggestion about Kosmos-955 was also criticized by Felix Ziegel, who noted that the space vehicles are launched eastwards, in the direction of Earth’s rotation.[20]

Further in 1977, a for official use only preliminary report on the Petrozavodsk phenomenon was prepared by Gindilis, MEPI engineer-physicist D. Menkov and I. Petrovskaya. It used various data available by 20 October, but the findings were inconclusive. Assuming that “the extent of phenomenon is apparently too big to be explained by technical experiments on satellite orbits”, the report conjectured “a possible influence of some cosmic agent”.[4] The report was used at the dedicated meeting on the Petrozavodsk phenomenon, arranged on 1 November 1977 in the Institute of Space Studies of Soviet Academy of Sciences (now Russian Space Research Institute). The findings were also inconclusive.

On 2 January, 1978, the vice president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, Vladimir Kotelnikov, signed a note to the Karelian Department of the Academy, informing about the dispatch of an expert group to study the phenomenon in situ. There, relying on eyewitnesses’ testimonies, the employee of Petrozavodsk University Y. Mezentsev conducted theodolite measurements to determine the approximate location of the unidentified object over Petrozavodsk. In the end of January 1978 the Soviet researchers compiled an appendix to the 1977 preliminary report, which contained updated data on the phenomenon. The appendix further emphasized that the sightings of unidentified objects elsewhere were reported before the launch of Kosmos-955.[8]

One copy of the report was received by the French research group GEPAN.[21] The copy was subsequently forwarded to CUFOS in Evanston, Illinois in the United States. J. Allen Hynek presented another copy to NASA scientist Richard Haines, who then translated the copy to English on a government grant.[21] The Soviet report was met with a mixed reception abroad. Haines, Hynek and others publicly claimed that the report was the key evidence for the existence of unidentified flying objects.[21] James Oberg criticised the Soviet investigation, regarding it “a ruse, possibly another Soviet attempt to divert attention from the truth about Soviet UFOs”.[21]

Proposed explanations[edit source]

TASS report on the launch of Kosmos-955

Several proposals to explain the nature of the phenomenon have been argued. The director of the Pulkovo Observatory Vladimir Krat initially thought that the phenomenon was caused by the fall of a meteorite.[13] Later in public speeches he attributed the phenomenon to aurorae.[13] This view was supported by the director of IZMIRAN Vladimir Migulin, whose conjecture was published in the newspaper Sovetskaya Rossiya on 19 April 1980. Migulin’s explanation was rejected by Felix Ziegel, who noted that aurorae cannot occur at an altitude lower than 100 km and that their surface brightness is low, being incomparable to that of the Petrozavodsk object.[20] Later Migulin suggested that the phenomenon occurred “due to a rare concourse of various circumstances, that is the launch of the satellite Kosmos-955, the strong magnetic perturbation due to solar flare and our scientific experiment of influencing the ionosphere with low frequency radio waves”.[22]

In the interview, published in 1977 by Kansan Uutiset and Uusi Suomi, the employee of Nurmijärvi geophysical observatory Matti Kivinen assumed that an unidentified object over Finland could be the remnant of a launch vehicle or satellite. James Oberg attributed the Petrozavodsk object to the launch of the Soviet satellite Kosmos-955 from Plesetsk Cosmodrome, which took place on September 20 at about 3:58 local time.[15] According to James Oberg, because Kosmos-955 was launched in the north-eastern direction, the residents of Petrozavodsk (located to the south-west from Plesetsk) observed the blaze trail from the satellite’s nozzles, which caused the phenomenon.[3] Oberg’s view was endorsed particularly by the IZMIRAN fellow Yuli Platov in 1984. According to Platov, the appearance of a shining spot was associated with the flare of the satellite’s engine.[23] The formation of an extended glowing area reportedly coincided with the satellite’s leaving the Earth’s shadow.[23] Platov further linked the development of the radiant structure to the passage of Kosmos-955 through the turbopause boundary, “above which the scattering of combustion products occurs without the damping effect of the atmosphere”.[23] In 1985 Platov’s view was published by Soviet magazine Nauka v SSSR.[24] In a later article Platov noted that “a number of additional effects, that accompanied the Petrozavodsk phenomenon, was associated with the unsuccessful test launch of a ballistic missile, that was conducted in the same region almost at the same time”.[25] Nonetheless, since the inconclusive Soviet investigation, the Kosmos-955 argument remains contested. Referring to his 18-year service experience at Kapustin Yar site, Ukrainian researcher Oleh Pruss said: “I know firsthand, what a spectacular in the sky occurs during the rocket launches – it’s quite an impressive view. However, there was something completely different over Petrozavodsk”.[26]

In 1978 Aviatsiya i Kosmonavtika published an article “‘Flashes’ in the atmosphere” by M. Dmitriyev, where a chemiluminescence hypothesis was put forward. According to Dmitriyev, the phenomenon was “neither the result of technical experiments nor a mirage”, but a chemiluminescent area in the atmosphere.[18] Concerning that hypothesis Ziegel wrote, that “the energy output of chemiluminescence is negligible”, unlike that of the Petrozavodsk object, and that the conjectured chemiluminescent clouds cannot soar against the wind, which the Petrozavodsk object appeared to do.[20]

Note[edit source]

Jump up ^ The 1977 preliminary data analysis by the Soviet Academy of Sciences considered only the altitudes of 10 km and higher to estimate the radiant flux and energy yielded by the Petrozavodsk object. At an altitude of 10 km the radiant flux was estimated at 4×106 W and the yielded energy at 1016 ergs (109 J).[4]

References[edit source]

^ Jump up to: a b Колчин Герман Константинович. НЛО, факты и документы [UFO, facts and documents] (in Russian). x-libri.ru. Retrieved 4 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c “A History of State UFO Research in the USSR”. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. December 2000. Retrieved 4 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b “Soviet UFO due to secret launch”. Science News. 112. October 8, 1977.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Л.М.Гиндилис, Д.А.Меньков, И.Г.Петровская (20 October 1977). Феномен 20 сентября 1977 г. Описание явления. Предварительный анализ данных [The phenomenon of 20 September 1977. Description of the phenomenon. Preliminary data analysis] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 4 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Paul Stonehill; Philip Mantle. “SETKA: A SECRET SOVIET UFO RESEARCH PROGRAM” (PDF). Archivos Forteanos Latino Americanos. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c Петрозаводский феномен Вместо предисловия [The Petrozavodsk phenomenon Foreword] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 7 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Felix Ziegel (25 April 1980). Ложь и правда о петрозаводском диве [Lie and truth about the Petrozavodsk miracle] (in Russian). miger.ru. Retrieved 4 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Л.М. Гиндилис; А.Н. Макаров; Д.А. Меньков; И.Г. Петровская. Феномен 20 сентября 1977 г. Дополнение к отчету от 20 октября 1977 г. [The phenomenon of 20 September 1977 Appendix to the report from 20 October 1977] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 5 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Петрозаводский феномен Сообщения, полученные после 30 декабря 1977 г. [Petrozavodsk phenomenon Reports received after 30 December 1977] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 5 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Pekka Teerikorpi. “Soviet “UFOS” identified as satellite launchings” (PDF). ignaciodarnaude.com. Retrieved 8 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b “The Petrozavodsk Phenomenon”. Science Frontiers. Retrieved 4 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Петрозаводский феномен Первые сообщения из Петрозаводска [Petrozavodsk phenomenon The first reports from Petrozavodsk] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 4 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Felix Ziegel. Главный Петрозаводский Объект (ГПО) [Main Petrozavodsk object] (in Russian). miger.ru. Retrieved 4 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Петрозаводский феномен Полная сводка сообщений [Petrozavodsk phenomenon Complete corpus of reports] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 6 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c d Oberg, James (1981). “Close encounters of a fabricated kind”. New Scientist. 92: 896. ISSN 0262-4079.

^ Jump up to: a b Петрозаводский феномен Локализация объекта [Petrozavodsk phenomenon The object’s location] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 5 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Е.К. Андреева. Петрозаводский феномен Заключение о психическом состоянии свидетелей [The Petrozavodsk phenomenon Report on mental condition of the eyewitnesses] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 8 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b М. Дмитриев (1978). “Вспышки” в атмосфере [“Flashes” in the atmosphere] (in Russian). Aviatsiya i Kosmonavtika, via miger.ru. Retrieved 7 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c Гиндилис Л.М. Предварительный анализ явления 20 сентября 1997 г. По данным на 30.09.1977 [Preliminary analysis of the phenomenon of 20 September 1977] (in Russian). astronet.ru. Retrieved 9 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c Felix Ziegel. Петрозаводское диво [Petrozavodsk miracle] (in Russian). miger.ru. Retrieved 7 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c d James Oberg. “The Great Soviet UFO Coverup”. debunker.com. Retrieved 10 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Жажда чуда [A thirst for a miracle]. “Неделя”, № 33 (in Russian). miger.ru. 1985. Retrieved 10 September 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c Платов, Ю. В.; Рубцов, В. В. НЛО и современная наука [UFO and the modern science] (in Russian). Moscow: Наука. ISBN 5-02-000189-9. Retrieved 8 September 2012.

Jump up ^ Аномальные явления: насколько они аномальны? . Наука в СССР (in Russian) (6): 90–96. 1985.

Jump up ^ Sokolov, B.А.; Platov, Yu.V. (2000). “The Study of Unidentified Flying Objects in the Soviet Union” (PDF). Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 70: 248. Retrieved September 8, 2012.

Jump up ^ “За несколько часов до “петрозаводского чуда” два НЛО сопровождали самолет, следовавший рейсом “Киев – Ленинград” [Several hours before the Petrozavodsk miracle two UFOs accompanied an aircraft travelling from Kiev to Leningrad] (in Russian). president.org.ua. Retrieved 8 September 2012.

hide v t e

UFOs and ufology

Index of ufology articles

Incidents

General

List of reported UFO sightings Sightings in outer space

Pre-20th century

Tulli Papyrus (possibly 15th century B.C.) Ezekiel’s Wheel (circa 622–570 B.C.) 1561 celestial phenomenon over Nuremberg 1566 celestial phenomenon over Basel José Bonilla observation (1883) Aurora (1897)

20th century

Los Angeles (1942) Kenneth Arnold (1947) Maury Island (1947) Roswell (1947) Aztec, New Mexico (1948) Mantell (1948) Chiles-Whitted (1948) Gorman Dogfight (1948) Mariana (1950) McMinnville photographs (1950) Sperry (1950) Lubbock Lights (1951) Carson Sink (1952) Nash-Fortenberry (1952) Washington, D.C. (1952) Flatwoods monster (1952) Ellsworth (1953) Kelly–Hopkinsville (1955) Lakenheath-Bentwaters (1956) Antônio Vilas Boas (1957) Levelland (1957) Trindade Island (1958) Barney and Betty Hill abduction (1961) Lonnie Zamora incident (1964) Solway Firth Spaceman (1964) Exeter (1965) Kecksburg (1965) Westall (1966) Shag Harbour (1967) Pascagoula Abduction (1973) Travis Walton incident (1975) Allagash (1976) Tehran (1976) Petrozavodsk phenomenon (1977) Operação Prato (1977) Valentich disappearance (1978) Kaikoura Lights (1978) Robert Taylor incident (1979) Val Johnson incident (1979) Cash-Landrum incident (1980) Rendlesham Forest (1980) Trans-en-Provence (1981) Japan Air Lines (1986) Voronezh UFO incident (1989) Belgian UFO wave (1990) Varginha (1996) Phoenix Lights (1997)

21st century

USS Nimitz UFO incident (2004) Campeche, Mexico (2004) O’Hare Airport (2006) Alderney (2007) Norway (2009) Morristown, New Jersey (2009)

Sightings by country

Argentina Australia Belarus Belgium Brazil Canada China France India Indonesia Iran Italy Mexico New Zealand Norway Philippines Russia South Africa Spain (Canary Islands) Sweden Thailand United Kingdom United States

Types of UFOs

Black triangle Flying saucer Foo fighter Ghost rockets Green fireballs Mystery airship

Types of alleged

extraterrestrial beings

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291 18 October 1977 Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. 1988 | MoMA

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The fifteen paintings that compose October 18, 1977 are based on photographs of moments in the lives and deaths of four members of the Red Army Faction ( RAF), a German left-wing terrorist group that perpetrated a number of kidnappings and killings throughout the 1970s. Like On Kawara’s date paintings, these …

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Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. 1988

Gerhard Richter

October 18, 1977

1988

Not on view

The fifteen paintings that compose October 18, 1977 are based on photographs of moments in the lives and deaths of four members of the Red Army Faction (RAF), a German left-wing terrorist group that perpetrated a number of kidnappings and killings throughout the 1970s. Like On Kawara’s date paintings, these paintings have a single date as their title. On this date the bodies of three principal RAF members were found in the cells of the German prison where they were incarcerated. Although the deaths were officially deemed suicides, there was widespread suspicion that the prisoners had been murdered by the German state police. Richter based his paintings on newspaper and police photographs; his reworking of these documentary sources is dark, blurred, and diffuse. Richter hopes that, “by way of reporting,” these paintings will “contribute to an appreciation of [our time], to see it as it is.”

Gallery label from Out of Time: A Contemporary View, August 30, 2006–April 9, 2007.

Additional text

On October 18, 1977, Andreas Baader, Jan-Carl Raspe, and Gudrun Ensslin were found dead in their cells in a Stuttgart prison. The three were members of the Red Army Faction, a coalition of young political radicals led by Baader and Ulrike Meinhof, who had earlier hung herself in police custody. Turning to violence in the late 1960s, the Baader-Meinhof group had become Germany’s most feared terrorists. Although the prisoners’ deaths were pronounced suicides, the authorities were suspected of murder. The fifteen works in October 18, 1977 evoke fragments from the lives and deaths of the Baader-Meinhof group. Richter has worked in a range of styles over the years, including painterly and geometric abstraction as well as varieties of realism based on photography; the slurred and murky motifs of this work derive from newspaper and police photographs or television images. Shades of gray dominate, the absence of color conveying the way these second-hand images from the mass media sublimate their own emotional content. An almost cinematic repetition gives an impression, as if in slow motion, of the tragedy’s inexorable unfolding. Produced during a prosperous, politically conservative era eleven years after the events, and insisting that this painful and controversial subject be remembered, these paintings are widely regarded as among the most challenging works of Richter’s career.

Publication excerpt from The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 309.

Medium

Oil on canvas, fifteen paintings

Dimensions

Installation variable

Credit

The Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection, gift of Philip Johnson, and acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest (all by exchange); Enid A. Haupt Fund; Nina and Gordon Bunshaft Bequest Fund; and gift of Emily Rauh Pulitzer

Object number

169.1995.a-o

Copyright

© 2018 Gerhard Richter

Department

Painting and Sculpture

Gerhard Richter has 112 works online.

There are 2,387 paintings online.

Licensing

If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations).

All requests to license audio or video footage produced by MoMA should be addressed to Scala Archives at firenze@scalarchives.com. Motion picture film stills or motion picture footage from films in MoMA’s Film Collection cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. For licensing motion picture film footage it is advised to apply directly to the copyright holders. For access to motion picture film stills please contact the Film Study Center. More information is also available about the film collection and the Circulating Film and Video Library.

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305 1 November 1977 List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1977

Issue date

Song

Artist(s)

October 15

“You Light Up My Life”

Debby Boone

October 22

October 29

November 5

49 more rows

List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1977 – Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Billboard_Hot_100_number-one_singles_of_1977

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330 26 November 1977 Southern Television broadcast interruption – Wikipedia

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The Southern Television broadcast interruption was a broadcast interruption through the Hannington transmitter of the Independent Broadcasting Authority in the United Kingdom at 5:10 p.m. on 26 November 1977. The broadcast message is generally considered to be a hoax, but the identity of the hijacker is unknown.

Description · Explanation · Public and media response · Transcript

Southern Television broadcast interruption

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigationJump to search

Southern Television broadcast interruption

HanningtonTransmitter.jpg

The Hannington transmitter in 2007, from where the broadcast signal was hijacked

Date 26 November 1977

Location Southern Television

Participants Unidentified

Outcome Unsolved

The Southern Television broadcast interruption was a broadcast interruption through the Hannington transmitter of the Independent Broadcasting Authority in the United Kingdom at 5:10 p.m. on 26 November 1977. The broadcast message is generally considered to be a hoax, but the identity of the hijacker is unknown.

Contents [hide]

1 Description

2 Explanation

3 Public and media response

4 Transcript

5 Usage in popular culture

6 See also

7 References

Description[edit source]

A speaker interrupted transmissions for six minutes and claimed to be a representative of an “Intergalactic Association”. Reports of the incident vary, some calling the speaker “Vrillon”[1] or “Gillon”, others “Asteron”.[2][3]

The voice, which was disguised and accompanied by a deep buzzing, broke into the broadcast of the local ITV station Southern Television, overriding the UHF audio signal of the early-evening news being read by Andrew Gardner from ITN to warn viewers that “All your weapons of evil must be removed” and “You have but a short time to learn to live together in peace.”

The interruption ceased shortly after the statement had been delivered, transmissions returning to normal shortly before the end of a Looney Tunes cartoon. Later in the evening, Southern Television apologised for what it described as “a breakthrough in sound” for some viewers. ITN also reported on the incident in its own late-evening Saturday bulletin.

The broadcast took over the sound only, leaving the video signal unaltered, aside from some picture distortion.

Explanation[edit source]

At that time, the Hannington UHF television transmitter was unusual in being one of the few transmitters which rebroadcast an off-air signal received from another transmitter (Southern Television’s Rowridge transmitter on the Isle of Wight), rather than being fed directly by a landline. As a consequence it was open to this kind of signal intrusion, as even a relatively low-powered transmission very close to the receiver could overwhelm its reception of the intended signal, resulting in the unauthorised transmission being amplified and rebroadcast across a far wider area. The IBA stated to carry out a hoax would take “a considerable amount of technical know-how”[4] and a spokesman for Southern Television confirmed “A hoaxer jammed our transmitter in the wilds of North Hampshire by taking another transmitter very close to it.”[2] They never discovered the identity of the intruder.

Public and media response[edit source]

The incident caused some local alarm and attracted publicity in the next day’s Sunday newspapers,[5] with the IBA announcing the broadcast was a hoax.[6] The IBA confirmed it was the first time such a hoax transmission had been made.[7]

Reports of the event carried worldwide[8][9] with numerous American newspapers picking up the story from the UPI press agency.[10][11]

The broadcast became a footnote in ufology as some chose to accept the supposed “alien” broadcast at face value, questioning the explanation of a transmitter hijack. Within two days of the incident’s report in The Times, a letter to the editor published on 30 November 1977 asked, “[How] can the IBA – or anyone else – be sure that the broadcast was a hoax?”[12] The editorial board of one American local newspaper—the Eugene Register-Guard—commented, “Nobody seemed to consider that ‘Asteron’ may have been for real.”[13] By as late as 1985, the story had entered urban folklore, with suggestions there had never been any explanation of the broadcast.[14]

A 1999 episode of children’s television series It’s a Mystery featured the event, produced by one of Southern’s successors, Meridian Television. The feature reenacted the incident with faux news reports and viewers watching the incident play out at home.[15]

Transcript[edit source]

The Winter 1977 issue of Fortean Times (issue #24)[16] magazine featured a transcript of what they described as the ‘short message’ that was broadcast:

This is the voice of Asteron. I am an authorised representative of the Intergalactic Mission, and I have a message for the planet Earth. We are beginning to enter the period of Aquarius and there are many corrections which have to be made by Earth people. All your weapons of evil must be destroyed. You have only a short time to learn to live together in peace. You must live in peace… or leave the galaxy.

The Fortean Times article went on to criticise reports of the incident appearing in newspapers:

Inexplicably the News Of The World and D. Mail call the owner of the voice “Gillon, of the Ashdown Galactic Command” and that he said: “Unless the weapons of Earth are laid down, destruction from outer space invasion will quickly follow.” I hope their regular news reportage is more accurate than that, for the indication is that they’ve simply invented a more shocking message.

Speaking on British commercial radio on 6 December 1977,[17] Sir John Whitmore also questioned newspaper reporting of the incident, referring to a recording of the complete broadcast which appeared to exist at the time.

A complete transcript of the message reads:[18]

This is the voice of Vrillon, a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command, speaking to you. For many years you have seen us as lights in the skies. We speak to you now in peace and wisdom as we have done to your brothers and sisters all over this, your planet Earth. We come to warn you of the destiny of your race and your world so that you may communicate to your fellow beings the course you must take to avoid the disaster which threatens your world, and the beings on our worlds around you. This is in order that you may share in the great awakening, as the planet passes into the New Age of Aquarius. The New Age can be a time of great peace and evolution for your race, but only if your rulers are made aware of the evil forces that can overshadow their judgments. Be still now and listen, for your chance may not come again. All your weapons of evil must be removed. The time for conflict is now past and the race of which you are a part may proceed to the higher stages of its evolution if you show yourselves worthy to do this. You have but a short time to learn to live together in peace and goodwill. Small groups all over the planet are learning this, and exist to pass on the light of the dawning New Age to you all. You are free to accept or reject their teachings, but only those who learn to live in peace will pass to the higher realms of spiritual evolution. Hear now the voice of Vrillon, a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command, speaking to you. Be aware also that there are many false prophets and guides at present operating on your world. They will suck your energy from you – the energy you call money and will put it to evil ends and give you worthless dross in return. Your inner divine self will protect you from this. You must learn to be sensitive to the voice within that can tell you what is truth, and what is confusion, chaos and untruth. Learn to listen to the voice of truth which is within you and you will lead yourselves onto the path of evolution. This is our message to our dear friends. We have watched you growing for many years as you too have watched our lights in your skies. You know now that we are here, and that there are more beings on and around your Earth than your scientists admit. We are deeply concerned about you and your path towards the light and will do all we can to help you. Have no fear, seek only to know yourselves, and live in harmony with the ways of your planet Earth. We of the Ashtar Galactic Command thank you for your attention. We are now leaving the planes of your existence. May you be blessed by the supreme love and truth of the cosmos.

Usage in popular culture[edit source]

Author Nelson Algren included a variation of the message in his 1983 book The Devil’s Stocking, a fictionalised account of the trial of Rubin Carter, a real-life prize-fighter who had been found guilty of double murder. In the book, as a period of unrest within the prison begins, the character ‘Kenyatta’ gives a speech closely mirroring the Fortean Times transcript of the Southern Television interruption:

“I am an authorized representative of the Intergalactic Mission,” Kenyatta finally disclosed his credentials. “I have a message for the Planet Earth. We are beginning to enter the period of Aquarius. Many corrections have to be made by Earth people. All your weapons of evil must be destroyed. You have only a short time to learn to live together in peace. You must live in peace” – here he paused to gain everybody’s attention – “you must live in peace or leave the galaxy!”[19]

See also[edit source]

Captain Midnight broadcast signal intrusion

Max Headroom broadcast signal intrusion

Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUnited Kingdom portalBlank television set.svgTelevision portalMr. Smiley Face.svg1970s portal

References[edit source]

Jump up ^ Paulu, Burton (October 1981). Television and radio in the United Kingdom. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-0-8166-0941-3.

^ Jump up to: a b “Galactic hoax startles viewers”, The Daily Collegian (Page 18), 2 December 1977, retrieved 19 December 2016

Jump up ^ Sieveking, Paul (26 December 1999), “100 Weird Years (see number 34)”, The Independent On Sunday, retrieved 13 September 2009

Jump up ^ “From outer space at short range”, The Guardian, 28 November 1977, p. 4.

Jump up ^ Sunday Express, 27 November 1977, p. 28.

Jump up ^ “Mystery Voice Loses Its Loophole”, Los Angeles Times, 30 November 1977, p. B5.

Jump up ^ “Source of hoax space broadcast stays a mystery”, The Times, 28 November 1977, p. 2, col. E.

Jump up ^ “Mysterious voice shakes up Britons”, Chicago Tribune, 30 November 1977, retrieved 13 September 2009

Jump up ^ Smith, Jack (6 December 1977), “Every Bloke for ‘Imself”, Los Angeles Times, retrieved 13 September 2009

Jump up ^ “British Viewers Hear ‘Message'”, Ellensburg Daily Record, 28 November 1977, retrieved 20 September 2009

Jump up ^ “Earth listeners receive ‘special message'”, Rome News-Tribune, 28 November 1977, retrieved 20 September 2009

Jump up ^ “Fact or science fiction?”, The Times, 30 November 1977, Letters to the Editor, p. 17.

Jump up ^ “Pay Attention”, Eugene Register-Guard, 15 December 1977, retrieved 20 September 2009

Jump up ^ “Galactic traveler issued a warning”, Columbia Missourian, p. 4a, 21 March 1985, retrieved 20 September 2009[dead link]

Jump up ^ TheMeakers (1 December 2011). “It’s a Mystery: Series 3: Show 2: TXN 11.1.99”. Retrieved 2 October 2016 – via YouTube.

Jump up ^ Diary of a Mad Planet: Fortean Times Issues 16–25. John Brown Publishing Ltd. 1995. ISBN 1-870021-25-8.

Jump up ^ “Bob Holness interviews John Whitmore”. Space message on Southern TV. LBC Archive. 6 December 1977. Retrieved 21 September 2009. I’d first like to refer to the recording itself of the complete message, one thing that struck me was that there was in fact nothing threatening whatsoever on the tape, and I was aware that most of the newspaper reports said it was threatening and frightening and so on, and so forth, and I just want to point out that that’s sort-of a projection of the fears onto the material itself rather than the reality.

Jump up ^ 2012 A Family Brief: The Science is all in By Robert L. Horton

Jump up ^ Algren, Nelson (September 1983). The Devil’s Stocking. Arbor House Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87795-548-1.

Categories: 1977 in British television1977 in the United KingdomCulture jammingForteanaHoaxes in the United KingdomPirate televisionUfologyUnsolved crimes in the United Kingdom1970s hoaxes

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